Regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and other Uralic languages
There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Uralic languages. For example, Hungarian á corresponds to Khantyo in certain positions, and Hungarian h corresponds to Khanty x, while Hungarian final z corresponds to Khanty final t. These can be seen in Hungarian ház ("house") and Khanty xot ("house"), or Hungarian száz ("hundred") and Khanty sot ("hundred").
Hungarian and Khanty are closely connected, either genealogically or as part of a language area. The distance between Hungarian and the Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular. The relationship is most obvious when comparing all Uralic languages together, for then individual idiosyncrasies are averaged out, but here we will just compare Hungarian with Finnish and Estonian (two Finnic languages).
In the middle of words (note that due to the loss of the word final vocals in the Old Hungarian period these are now at the end of the words), Hungarian has also lenited original stops, but in a different fashion.
Hungarian /p k/ correspond to Finnish and Estonian geminate stops /pp kk/:
lykätä : lykkää-
Hungarian /t/ corresponds to the Finnish and Estonian two-stop cluster /tk/:
to bind, to join (Estonian: "halter", a derivative)
(No examples where a word with original *tt would have survived in both Hungarian and Finnic are known, but cases testifying for the development of *tt to /tt/ in Finnic and /t/ in Hungarian can be set up with the help of the other Uralic languages.)
Hungarian /d/ corresponds to Finnish and Estonian /nt/ (which may alternate with /nn/):
jänne : jäntee-
nerve (Hung.; a derivative), string, sinew (Fi.)
(Again, with the help of the other Uralic languages, the analogous developments *mp *ŋk → Hungarian /b g/, Finnic /mp ŋk/ could be supported.)
Hungarian /v/ corresponds to Finnish and Estonian /p/:
few (Hung.), light (Finnic)
Hungarian /z/ corresponds to Finnish and Estonian /t/ (which can alternate with /d/ or zero, and becomes /s/ before /i/):
house (Hung.), hut (Finnic)
käsi : käden : käte-
käsi : käe : käte-
mesi : meden : mete-
mesi: mee : mete-
Hungarian zero, here always preceding a long vowel, corresponds to Finnish and Estonian /k/ by itself (which may alternate with zero or /h/) and as the first member of a consonant cluster:
Two different regular correspondences can be found in Hungarian for Finnish and Estonian /s/. The first is Hungarian /s/:
The second is Hungarian zero:
eszik : ev-
sinew, (Finnic also) vein
These two correspondences represent two different original consonants. /s/ : /s/ is reconstructed as originating in Proto-Uralic *ś, while ∅ : /s/ is reconstructed as Proto-Uralic *s. Both correspondences can be seen simultaneously in the word for "autumn" (see above under *-k-), from Proto-Uralic *sükśi.
Hungarian liquid consonants /l r/ correspond to Finnish and Estonian /l r/:
awl (Hung., Es.), thorn (Fi.)
lé : lev-
liquid (Hung.), broth (Finnic)
Examples also include 'bit', 'to fear', 'cloud', 'fish', 'winter', 'flat', 'to push', 'bosom' listed above.
Hungarian nasal consonants /m n ɲ/ correspond to Finnish and Estonian /m n n/:
mikä : mi-
megy : men-
Further examples include (/m/:) 'honey', 'liver', 'eye', (/n/:) 'to plait', 'to see', 'sinew', (/ɲ/:) 'tear', 'palate', 'arrow', 'to lick' listed above. Word-internally a correspondence Hungarian /v/ : Finnic /m/ is also found, as seen in 'broth', 'name', and 'heart'.
A correspondence can also be set up between Hungarian /g/ and Finnish and Estonian long vowels. With the help of the other Uralic languages, this can be reconstructed as *ŋ: