Red complex

The red complex is a group of bacteria that are categorized together based on their association with severe forms of periodontal disease.[1] The red complex—among a number of other complexes—were classified by Sigmund Socransky in 1998.[2]

The three members of the red complex are:

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis
  2. Tannerella forsythia
  3. Treponema denticola


  1. ^ Rôças IN, Siqueira JF, Santos KR, Coelho AM (April 2001). ""Red complex" (Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola) in endodontic infections: a molecular approach". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 91 (4): 468–71. doi:10.1067/moe.2001.114379. PMID 11312465.
  2. ^ Wolf HF, Rateitschak K (2005). Color Atlas of Dental Medicine: Periodontology (3rd ed.). Thieme. p. 37. ISBN 0-86577-902-3.