Rapini or broccoli rabe (//) is a green cruciferous vegetable, with the leaves, buds, and stems all being edible; the buds somewhat resemble broccoli, but do not form a large head. Rapini is known for its slightly bitter taste, and is particularly associated with Mediterranean cuisine.
|Cultivar group||Ruvo group|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||92 kJ (22 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||2.7 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Native to Europe, the plant is a member of the tribe Brassiceae of the Brassicaceae (mustard family). Rapini is classified scientifically as Brassica rapa var. Ruvo. It is also known as broccoletti, broccoli raab, broccoli rabe, spring raab, and ruvo kale. Turnip and bok choy are a different variety (or subspecies) of this species.
Rapini has many spiked leaves that surround clusters of green buds that resemble small heads of broccoli. Small, edible yellow flowers may be blooming among the buds. Rapini is a source of vitamins A, C, and K, as well as potassium, calcium, and iron.
The flavor of rapini has been described as nutty, bitter, and pungent, as well as almond-flavored. Rapini needs little more than a trim at the base. The entire stalk is edible when young, but the base becomes more fibrous as the season advances.
Rapini is widely used in southern Italian cuisine, in particular that of Sicily, Calabria, Campania, Apulia (Puglia), and Rome. In Italian, rapini is called cime di rapa or broccoletti di rapa; in Naples, the green is often called friarielli. Within Portuguese cuisine, grelos de nabo are similar in taste and texture to broccoli rabe. Rapini is also popular in the Galicia region of northwestern Spain; a rapini festival (Feira do grelo) is held in the Galician town of As Pontes every February.
Rapini may be sautéed or braised with olive oil and garlic, and sometimes chili pepper and anchovy. It may be used as an ingredient in soup, served with orecchiette, other pasta, or pan-fried sausage. Rapini is sometimes (but not always) blanched before being cooked further.
In the United States, rapini is popular in Italian-American kitchens; the D'Arrigo Brothers popularized the ingredient in the United States and gave it the name broccoli rabe. Broccoli rabe is a component of some hoagies and submarine sandwiches; in Philadelphia, a popular sandwich is roast pork with broccoli rabe and peppers. It can be a component of pasta dishes, especially when accompanied by Italian sausage.
- "Brassica rapa (Ruvo Group)". North Carolina State University, Cooperative Extension. 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "Rapini/Broccoli Raab". sonomamg.ucanr.edu (in American English). UC Master Gardener Program of Sonoma County, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
- Broccoli Raab Nutrition Facts
- Lidia Matticchio Bastianich & Tanya Bastianich Manuali, Lidia's Italy in America (Knopf, 2011), p. 127.
- Elizabeth., Schneider (2001). Vegetables from amaranth to zucchini : the essential reference : 500 recipes and 275 photographs (1st ed.). New York: Morrow. ISBN 978-0688152604. OCLC 46394048.
- Vincent Schiavelli, Papa Andrea's Sicilian Table: Recipes and Remembrances of My Grandfather (Citadel Press, rev. ed., 2001), p. 40.
- Rosetta Costantino with Janet Fletcher, My Calabria: Rustic Family Cooking from Italy's Undiscovered South (W.W. Norton, 2010), p. 217.
- Marcella Hazan & Victor Hazan, Ingredienti: Marcella's Guide to the Market (Scribner, 2016), p. 89.
- Rossella Rago, Recipe: Orecchiette con Cime di Rapa, Explore Parts Unknown (November 22, 2017).
- Marlena Spieler, A Taste of Naples: Neapolitan Culture, Cuisine, and Cooking (Rowman & Littlefield, 2018), p. 67.
- David Leite, The New Portuguese Table: Exciting Flavors from Europe's Western Coast (Clarkson Potter, 2009).
- Ashifa Kassam, Google Translate error sees Spanish town advertise clitoris festival, The Guardian (November 3, 2015).
- Domenica Marchetti, The Glorious Vegetables of Italy (Chronicle Books, 2013), p. 17.
- Vegetables Illustrated: An Inspiring Guide with 700+ Kitchen-Tested Recipes (America's Test Kitchen, 2019), p. 56.
- "Broccoli Rabe Pasta with Italian Sausage and Fennel". Familystyle Food (in American English). 2017-10-29. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
- Wang X, Wang H, Wang J, et al. (October 2011). "The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa". Nature Genetics. 43 (10): 1035–9. doi:10.1038/ng.919. PMID 21873998. S2CID 205358099.
- Osborn TC, Kole C, Parkin IA, et al. (July 1997). "Comparison of flowering time genes in Brassica rapa, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana". Genetics. 146 (3): 1123–9. PMC 1208040. PMID 9215913.
- Suwabe K, Iketani H, Nunome T, Kage T, Hirai M (May 2002). "Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Brassica rapa L". TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik. 104 (6–7): 1092–1098. doi:10.1007/s00122-002-0875-7. PMID 12582617. S2CID 33184043.
- Cefola M, Amodio ML, Cornacchia R, Rinaldi R, Vanadia S, Colelli G (April 2010). "Effect of atmosphere composition on the quality of ready-to-use broccoli raab (Brassica rapa L.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 90 (5): 789–97. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3885. PMID 20355114.
- Mun JH, Yu HJ, Shin JY, Oh M, Hwang HJ, Chung H (October 2012). "Auxin response factor gene family in Brassica rapa: genomic organization, divergence, expression, and evolution". Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 287 (10): 765–84. doi:10.1007/s00438-012-0718-4. PMC 3459075. PMID 22915303.
- Media related to Brassica rapa at Wikimedia Commons