Anniversary

(Redirected from Quinquennial)

An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. The word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints.

On the 40th anniversary of his reign, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden toasts the city's Mayor in front of Stockholm Palace.
Memorial plaque presented by the National Capital Sesquicentennial Commission, 1951

Most countries celebrate national anniversaries, typically called national days. These could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government. There is no definite method for determining the date of establishment of an institution, and it is generally decided within the institution by convention. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may also be commemorated, an event often referred to as a "jubilee".

NamesEdit

The Latin phrase dies natalis (literally "birth day") has become a common term, adopted in many languages, especially in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding ("legal or statutory birth") of an institution, such as an alma mater (college or other school). In ancient Rome, the [dies] Aquilae natalis was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion.

Anniversaries of nations are usually marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals.

NumericalEdit

Latin terms for anniversaries are mostly straightforward, particularly those relating to the first thirty years (1–30), or multiples of ten years (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 etc.), or multiples of centuries or millenniums (100, 200, 300, 1000, 2000, 3000, etc.) In these instances, the name of the anniversary is generally derived from the Latin word(s) for the respective number of years. When anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries (125, 150, 175, 225 years—i.e. 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.25 centuries), the situation is not as simple.

Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From 112 to 812 they were expressed as multiples of twelfths (uncia "twelfth"; the source of the English words inch and ounce) and from 912 to 1112 they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. a whole unit less 312, 212 or 112 respectively. There were also special terms for quarter (quadrans), half (semis), and three-quarters (dodrans). Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from"; quadrans means "quarter"). Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole (bi)century or 175 = (−25 + 200).[1]

In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply precisely for 1+12. While secundus is Latin for "second", and bis for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead sesqui (or ses) is used by itself.

Anniversary Latin-derived term Other terms Comments
1 Day Datal
1 Week Weekal
1 Month Monthal
3 months Quarteral
6 months Semiannual 'Biannual' means twice in a year, but is also commonly used incorrectly to mean once every two years ('biennial').
Biannual
1 year Annual Paper
2 years Biennial Cotton 'Biennial' means once every two years, but is also commonly used incorrectly to mean twice in a year ('biannual').
3 years Triennial Leather
4 years Quadrennial Linen
5 years Quinquennial Wood
6 years Sexennial Iron
7 years Septennial Wool
8 years Octennial Bronze
9 years Novennial Copper
10 years Decennial Tin
Aluminum
Denary
11 years Undecennial Steel
12 years Duodecennial Silk
1212 years Parsley A humorous or mock wedding anniversary celebrated in Germany and the Netherlands where everyone needs to wear something green
13 years Tredecennial Lace
14 years Quattuordecennial Ivory
15 years Quindecennial Crystal
16 years Sexdecennial Sapphire Sapphire is separately used for other anniversaries
17 years Septdecennial Orchid
18 years Octdecennial Quartz
19 years Novdecennial Jade
20 years Vigintennial China/Porcelain
Vicennial
Vicenary
21 years unvigintennial
22 years duovigintennial
23 years trivigintennial
24 years quadrivigintennial
25 years Quadranscentennial Silver
26 years sexavigintennial
27 years septvigintennial
28 years octovigintennial
29 years Nonavigintennial
30 years Tricennial Pearl
Tricenary
35 years Quintricennial Coral
40 years Quadragennial Ruby
Quadragenary
45 years Quinquadragennial Sapphire
50 years Semicentennial Golden Previously, "jubilee" by itself was used to indicate celebrations at 50 year intervals
Quinquagenary
55 years Quinquinquagennial Emerald
Quinquinquagenary
60 years Sexagennial Diamond Diamond is separately used for the 75th anniversary, its use for 60th years being popularized by Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria
Sexagenary
65 years Quinsexagennial Sapphire Sapphire is separately used for other anniversaries
70 years Septuagennial Platinum
Septuagenary
75 years Semisesquicentennial Diamond Diamond is separately used for the 60th anniversary
Demisesquicentennial
80 years Octogintennial Oak
Octogenary
85 years quinoctogennial
90 years Nonagintennial Granite
Nonagenary
95 years quinnonagennial
100 years Centennial
Centenary
110 years decaCentennial
120 years bidecaCentennial
125 years Quasquicentennial Term is broken down as quasqui- (and a quarter) centennial (100 years). Quasqui is a contraction from quadrans "a quarter" plus the clitic conjunction -que "and". The term was coined by Funk and Wagnalls editor Robert L. Chapman in 1961.[2]
130 years tridecaCentennial
140 years quadridecaCentennial
150 years Sesquicentennial Term broken down as sesqui- (one and a half) centennial (100 years)
160 years sexadecaCentennial
170 years septdecaCentennial
175 years Dodransbicentennial Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from"; quadrans means "quarter"). 175 years is a quarter century less than the next whole (bi)century (175 = 200 − 25).[1]
Dodrabicentennial Alternative Latin form of Dodransbicentennial
Dequasbicentennial Alternative Latin form of Dodransbicentennial
Dosquicentennial Dosquicentennial has been used in modern times and this is perhaps a modern contraction of "de-quadrans".[1]
Demisemiseptcentennial Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: demisemiseptcentennial; literally one-half (demi-) × one-half (semi-) × seven (sept-) × 100 years (centennial)—also demisemiseptcentenary.[3][4]
Quartoseptcentennial Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: quartoseptcentennial; literally one-quarter (quarto-) × seven (sept-) × 100 years (centennial)—also quartoseptcentenary.[3]
Terquasquicentennial A coined word for an anniversary of 175 years, but the elements of the word literally refer to an anniversary of 375 years, as follows: ter- (3) × quasqui- (114) × centennial (100 years)
Septaquintaquinquecentennial Suggested by lexicographer Robert L. Chapman to William Safire; first appeared in Safire's column, "On Language" (The New York Times Magazine, February 12, 1995). It is a coined word for an anniversary of 175 years, but the elements of the word literally refer to an anniversary of 35,000 years, as follows: septaquinta- (70) × quinque- (5) × centennial (100 years)
180 years octodecaCentennial
190 years nonadecaCentennial
200 years Bicentennial
Bicentenary
225 years Quasquibicentennial
250 years Sestercentennial To express 2+12 in Latin it would be expressed as "half-three". The term relates to being halfway [from the second] to the third integer. In Latin this is "Sestertius", which is a contraction of semis (halfway) tertius (third)—hence Sestercentennial.[1]
Semiquincentennial Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: semi- (half) × quin (5) × centennial (100 years) = 250 years. Used by Brown University in 2015.[5]
Bicenquinquagenary Used by Princeton University in 1996, Reading, Pennsylvania in 1998, and Washington and Lee University in 1999.[6] It is a coined word for an anniversary of 250 years: bi- (2) × cen(t)- (100) + quinquagenary (50 years).
Quarter-millennial [7]
Quadransmillennial From quadrans- (quarter) x millennial (1000 years).
275 years dodranstricentennial
300 years Tercentenary
Tercentennial
Tricentenary
Tricentennial
325 years quasquitricentennial
350 years Sesquarcentennial Sesquarcentennial is a modern coined term; sesquarcentennial for 350 years is deduced here from the "Sestertius" definition for 250 years above. For 350 years it relates to being halfway from the third to the fourth integer; thus a contraction of semis (halfway) and quartus (fourth); hence Sesquarcentennial. Semiseptcennial is probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: semi- (half) × sept (7) × cen(t)- (100) × centennial (350 years).
Semiseptcentennial
375 years dodransquadricentennial
400 years Quadricentennial
Quadricentenary
Quatercentenary
425 years quasquiquadricentennial
450 years Sesquincentennial
475 years dodransquincentennial
500 years Quincentenary
Quincentennial
550 years Sessexacentennial
600 years Sexcentenary
Sexacentennial
650 years Sesseptcentennial
700 years Septcentennial Probably[attribution needed] a coined term; earliest known use in March 1988.[8] Chiang Mai Septcentennial Stadium (Chiang Mai, Thailand) was completed in 1991.[9]
Septuacentennial
750 years Sesoctocentennial
800 years Octocentenary
Octocentennial
850 years Sesnonacentennial
900 years Nonacentennial
950 years Sesdecacentennial
1000 years Millennial
1100 years centimillennial
1200 years bicentimillennial
1300 years tricentimillennial
1400 years quadricentimillennial
1500 years Sesquimillennial Term broken down as sesqui- (one and a half) millennial (1000 years)
1600 years sexacentimillennial
1700 years septcentimillennial
1800 years octocentimillennial
1900 years nonacentimillennial
2000 years Bimillennial
2100 years centibimillennial
2200 years duocentibimillennial
2300 years tricentibimillennial
2400 years quadricentibimillennial
2500 years sesquibimillennial
2600 years sexacentibimillennial
2700 years septcentibimillennial
2800 years octocentibimillennial
2900 years nonacentibimillennial
3000 years Trimillennial
3500 years sesquitrimillennial
4000 years Quadrimillennial
4500 years sesquiquadrimillennial
5000 years Quinmillennial
5500 years sesquiquinmillennial
6000 years sexamillennial
6500 years Sesquisexamillenial
7000 years septmillennial
7500 years sesquiseptmillennial
8000 years octomillennial
8500 years sesquioctmillennial
9000 years nonamillennial
9500 years Sesquinonamillenial
10,000 years Decamillennial
11,000 years unDecamillennial
12,000 years doDecamillennial
13,000 years treDecamillennial
14,000 years quattuordecamillennial
15,000 years quindecimillennial
16,000 years sexaDecamillennial
17,000 years septDecamillennial
18,000 years octoDecamillennial
19,000 years nonadecamillennial
20,000 years Vigintimillennial
25,000 years Quinvigintimillennial
30,000 years trigintimillenial
35,000 years Quinteigintimillennial
40,000 years Quadragintimillennial
45,000 years Quinquadragintimillenial
50,000 years Quinagintimillenial
60,000 years Sexagintimillenial
70,000 years Septagintimillenial
80,000 years Octagaintimillenial
90,000 years nonagintimillenial
100,000 Years Centimillenial
200,000 Years bicentimillenial
300,000 Years tricentimillenial
400,000 Years quadricentimillenial
500,000 Years quincentimillenial
1,000,000 Years Megannual From megannum
2,000,000 Years bimegannual
3,000,000 Years trimegannual
5,000,000 Years quinmegannual
10,000,000 Years Decamegannual
20,000,000 Years duoDecamegannual
50,000,000 years quindecamegannual
100,000,000 Years centimegannual
250,000,000 Years sesquibicentimegannual
500,000,000 Years quincentimegannual
1,000,000,000 years Gigannual
5,000,000,000 years quinGigannual
10,000,000,000 years decaGigannual
100,000,000,000 years centiGigannual
1,000,000,000,000 Years Terannual
10^15 Years Petannual
10^18 Years Exannual
10^21 years Zettannual
10^24 years Yottannual
10^27 Years Ronnannual
10^30 years Quettannual
10^33 Years Quetkilannual
10^36 years Quetmegannual
10^39 years Quetgigannual
10^42 years Quetterannual
10^45 years Quetpetannual
10^48 years Quetexannual
10^51 years Quetzettannual
10^54 years Quetyottannual
10^57 years Quetronnannual
10^60 years Quetquetannual / Duetannual
10^63 Years Duetkilannual
10^100 years Googannual
10^303 years Centilliannual

SymbolsEdit

Many anniversaries have special names. Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home by Emily Post, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, and 75 years.[10] Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in later editions and publications; they now comprise what is referred to as the "traditional" list. Generally speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it.

There are variations according to some national traditions. There exist numerous partially overlapping, partially contradictory lists of anniversary gifts (such as wedding stones), separate from the 'traditional' names. The concepts of a person's birthday stone and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's birthday.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "SA 175th Jubilee". Clipper Ship 'City of Adelaide'. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2011. So the name for a 175th anniversary? For now it is really up to the preference of the reader. One day one of these terms may make its way into popular usage, become accepted, and find a place in a dictionary.
  2. ^ Chapman, Robert L. (February 1965). "The History of "Quasquicentennial"". American Speech. 40 (1): 53–57. doi:10.2307/454178. ISSN 0003-1283. JSTOR 454178. It is our policy to reply as courteously and helpfully as we can to such requests, and I answered Mr. Hatten on August 7, suggesting quasquicentennial. Since this is a history, I shall quote the letter in full: Dr. Wilfred Funk has passed your letter of July I on to us. We are happy to help, if you feel that you really want a new Latinate word meaning "one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary". The best model upon which to form the word is "sesquicentennial", meaning "one hundred and fiftieth anniversary". We need a first element meaning "plus a fourth", analogous with "sesqui" which means "plus a half". "Sesqui" is apparently formed from "semis que", meaning "and a half". Now, both "quarta" and "quadrans" mean "a fourth", so we may begin with either "quarta que" or "quadrans que". The trick is to combine and shorten one of these as "sesqui" was combined and shortened from "semis que". If we follow the model of "sesqui" very closely, retaining the stressed vowel and final "s" of "quadrans", we get the word "quasquicentennial". Combining and shortening in other ways we can also get "quadqui-", "quansqui-", "quarsqui-", and perhaps several others. On the grounds that it is closest to the model and also probably the least ugly of the set, I would choose "quasquicentennial" (pronounced kwahskwee-) as the new word. Of course, you may decide that you do not really want or need a new word. There is no point in proliferating them needlessly. I should add, perhaps, that this word would not appear in any of our dictionaries until it had established itself in wide currency, even if you should decide to use it. I hope we have been able to help you.
  3. ^ a b "Under the Cupola". Neighbors of Batavia. July–August 2008. p. 29. The etymology of "demisemiseptcentennial" is compared to "hemidemisemiquaver", a 64th note.
  4. ^ "Pickle Barrel: 175th-birthday bash planned for Dillsburg." The Patriot-News (Mechanicsburg, Penn.), Wednesday, 18 June 2008.
  5. ^ "Brown lowers the curtain on 15-month semiquincentenary". Brown University. 2015-06-11. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  6. ^ McCleery, William (November 19, 1997). "The Meaning of the 250th". Princeton Alumni Weekly. Princeton University. Retrieved March 23, 2011. Faster, it seems, than you can say "bicenquinquagenary", Princeton's 250th anniversary has come and gone.
  7. ^ "A Memorial of the Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of Northampton, Massachusetts". City of Northampton. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  8. ^ Kersten, Glenn (March 1988). "Naming the Anniversaries". Quidnunc. Archived from the original on 21 January 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  9. ^ Architects 49: Selected and Current Work. (The Master Architect Series; 5.) Image Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 978-1-876907-09-9
  10. ^ "22. The Day of the Wedding. Post, Emily. 1922. Etiquette". bartleby.com.

External linksEdit