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Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912

When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P.E.I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949; meanwhile, its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories.
Evolution of the borders of the Province of Quebec

The Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912 is an Act passed by the Parliament of Canada on April 1, 1912, that expanded the territory of the Province of Quebec. It was supplemental to the Quebec Boundary Extension Act, 1898 that granted the province its first territorial enlargement. The Act transferred to the province the vast territory bounded by the Eastmain River, the Labrador coast, and Hudson and Ungava Bays, extending the northern boundary to its present location. These lands were inhabited by the aboriginal Cree, Montagnais, Naskapi, and Inuit.

Canada and Newfoundland disagreed on the location of the frontier between Quebec and Labrador until 1927: see Labrador Boundary Dispute.