Qakh District (Azerbaijani: Qax rayonu; Georgian: კახის რაიონი – K′akhis raioni; Lezgian: Kax rayon), also Kakhi or sometimes Gakh, is a raion (district) in the north of Azerbaijan, on the border with Georgia (Kakheti).
Map of Azerbaijan showing Qakh Rayon
|• Executive power||Musa Shakiliyev|
|• Total||603 km2 (233 sq mi)|
|• Density||89/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|Telephone code||(+994) 24|
The area of the region occupies 1,494 km2 (577 sq mi) and borders Russia (Dagestan) on the north, Georgia (Kakheti) on the west. It also shares the internal boundaries with Zaqatala Rayon in the northwest, Yevlakh and Samukh regions in the south and Shaki region in the east.
Nature and geographyEdit
The region is being dominated by hot and subtropical climate. However mountainous areas are rather cold. Annual rain precipitation varies from 300mm (in the south) to 1600mm in mountain areas.
Meadows, water resources, forests, and fertile soils are providing space for agricultural development, especially for walnut, chestnut production.
Heavy rains and snowmelts from mountains often result in a flood.
The region also has one of the biggest Natural Reserves in Azerbaijan named “Ilisu Natural Reserve”. Reserve is located near Aghchay village.
Region borders with Dagestan Republic (Russia) in north east, Zagatala region in the north, Samukh region in the south, Georgia in the west. Gakh region accounts for 13% of water supplies of Caucasus (3873 cubic kilometers), 100 thousand cub meters of which are extracted for the administrative district, 63 000 of which used for irrigation and only 2 000 cub meters are used for agriculture. Rest is used for domestic consumption and production. 
The local economy is specialized in crop production and livestock. Most common products produced here are tobacco and grain.
The main enterprises are canned food and vegetables. Other enterprises cover sweets, oil products, and beverages. Enterprises mainly cover domestic demand and ship products to other districts.
The region is also rich with minerals and building raw materials, such as rubble, sand, clay, sulfur, etc.
These materials are widespread in river valleys, especially in the valleys of the Kurmuk River and its branches.
Furthermore, mineral springs are also common in region. Near Suskand village “Gah” mineral water is produced.
The Qakh region of Azerbaijan has a long history dating back to ancient times. Archaeological excavations the area had been populated during Eneolithic, Bronze and early Iron Ages. What remains of these early inhabitants' activities indicates they engaged largely in sedentary cultivation, animal-breeding and art. Qax (Kakhi) region was part of Kakheti-Hereti Kingdom and than part of united Georgian kingdom. In 1921 Kakhi Region became part of Azerbaijan.
With the spread of Christianity throughout the region during the existence of Caucasian Albania, some Churches were built in the Qakh district. In the 8th century A.D., Qakh fell under Arab occupation. Starting from the 11th century first Oghuz Turks and later Qipchaq Turks inhabited the area, the region was incorporated into the Seljuq Empire. Qakh was later a part of Atabeg and Shirvanshah states. With invasion of Hulaguids in Azerbaijan in the 13th century, Mongolian nomadic tribes populated the region. In 1562, by the order of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp I, Ilisu Sultanate was established in Qakh. In the 18th century, Ilisu Sultanate became so powerful that, the Ottoman Emperor conferred its ruler Ali Sultan Bey the highest title of Pasha recognizing him as the Beylerbey of Shaki.
In 1803 the sultanate of Ilisu was annexed to the Russian empire. The ruler of the sultanate, Daniyal, inspired the people to rise against Russian rule in 1844, due to a disagreement between him and the government of Russia. Sultan Daniyel was defeated near the village of İlisu and continued his struggle against Russian along with the leader of the national freedom movement, Sheykh Shamil. Russians burnt Ilisu and divided the territory of the sultanate into mahals (territorial units) and annexed them to the Jar-Balaken daire (territorial unit) converting it into a colony of tsarist Russia. With proclamation of independence of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in May 1918, Qakh was retained within Azerbaijan. During the Soviet rule, Qakh was established as raion of Azerbaijan SSR in 1930.
The overall statistics indicate the population growth fluctuates. For instance, In 2000 there were 832 newly born, in 2006 - 816, down to 753 in 2009.
The Qakh District is also a center of the Georgian minority in Azerbaijan, with most of the ones in this district being of Christian origin.
|Total||51 161||100.00||53 259||100.00|
|Azerbaijanis||39 355||76.92||43 946||82.51|
|Ingiloy (Georgians)||7 450||14.56||7 447||13.98|
|Tsakhurs||2 612||5.11||1 008||1.89|
The city has 59 villages
- Ağçay, Qakh
- Almalı, Qakh
- Armudlu, Qakh
- Böyük Alatəmir
- Çinarlı, Qakh
- Əlibəyli, Qakh
- Əmircan, Qakh
- Kiçik Alatəmir
- Kötüklü, Qakh
- Ləkit Kötüklü
- Ləkit Malax
- Qıpçaq, Qakh
- Qum, Qakh
- Şıxlar, Qakh
- Üzümlü, Qakh
- Uzuntala, Qakh
- Yeni İlisu
- Zəyəm, Qakh
- "Qax rayonu icra hakimiyyətin başçisi dəyişdirildi" [The head of executive power of Qakh rayon replaced]. Lider TV. 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
- Qax Rayon Archived 2019-01-17 at the Wayback Machine: General information on Azerbaijan.az
- Statistical Yearbook 2011, table 2.19, State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan, Baku.
- "Şəhərlərarası telefon kodları". Aztelekom MMC. Aztelekom İB. Retrieved 19 August 2015. (in Azerbaijani)
- "Qax rayonu icra hakimiyyəti. QAX RAYONU HAQQINDA QISA MƏLUMAT" [Executive Power of Gakh Rayon. Brief information about Gakh Rayon]. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
- "Гах, Азербайджан". gomap.az. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- "İqtisadiyyat - QAX RAYON Icra Hakimiyyəti". www.qax-ih.gov.az. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- "Архитектурное наследие Албанской Церкви" [Architectural heritage of Albanian Church]. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
- "Azərbaycanın regionları. Demoqrafik göstəricilər" [Statistics Committee. Regions of Azerbaijan. Demographic indicators]. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
- Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan by 1999 census
- Qax rayonu
- Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan by 2009 census
- "Qax Rayon İcra Hakimiyyəti". Əhalisi. Retrieved 24 August 2015. (in Azerbaijani)