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A sequence for a stationary-pulsed-stationary maneuver for a pulsed thermal nuclear rocket. During the stationary mode (working at constant nominal power), the fuel temperature is always constant (solid black line), and the propellant is coming cold (blue dotted lines) heated in the chamber and exhausted in the nozzle (red dotted line). When amplification in thrust or specific impulse is required, the nuclear core is "switched on" to a pulsed mode. In this mode, the fuel in continuously quenched and instantaneously heated by the pulses. Once the requirements for high thrust and specific impulse are not required, the nuclear core is "switched on" to the initial stationary mode.

A pulsed nuclear thermal rocket is a type of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept developed at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain and presented at the 2016 AIAA/SAE/ASEE Propulsion Conference for thrust and specific impulse (Isp) amplification in a conventional nuclear thermal rocket.[1]

The pulsed nuclear thermal rocket is a bimodal rocket able to work in a stationary ( at constant nominal power as in conventional NTR), and as well as a pulsed mode as a TRIGA-like reactor, making possible the production of high power and an intensive neutron flux in short time intervals. In contrast to nuclear reactors where velocities of the coolant are no larger than a few meter per second and thus, typical residence time is on seconds, however, in rockets chambers with subsonic velocities of the propellant around hundreds of meters per second, residence time are around to : and then a long power pulse translates into an important gain in energy in comparison with the stationary mode. The gained energy -by pulsing the nuclear core, can be used for thrust amplification by increasing the propellant mass flow, or using the intensive neutron flux to produce a very high specific impulse amplification – even higher than the fission-fragment rocket, where in the pulsed rocket the final propellant temperature is only limited by the radiative cooling after the pulsation.

Contents

Statement of the conceptEdit

A rough calculation for the energy gain by using a pulsed thermal nuclear rocket in comparison with the conventional stationary mode, is as follows. The energy stored into the fuel after a pulsation, is the sensible heat stored because the fuel temperature increase. This energy may be written as

 

where:

  is the sensible heat stored after pulsation,
  is the fuel heat capacity,
  is the fuel mass,
  is the temperature increase between pulsations.

On the other hand, the energy generated in the stationary mode, i.e., when the nuclear core operates at nominal constant power is given by

 

where:

  is the linear power of the fuel (power per length of fuel),
  is the length of the fuel,
  is the residence time of the propellant in the chamber.

Also, for the case of cylindrical geometries for the nuclear fuel we have

 

and the linear power given by [2]

 

Where:

  is the radius of the cylindrical fuel,
  the fuel density,
  the fuel thermal conductivity,
  is the fuel temperature at the center line,
  is the surface or cladding temperature.

Therefore, the energy ratio between the pulsed mode and the stationary mode,   yields

 

Where the term inside the bracket,   is the quenching rate.

Typical average values of the parameters for common nuclear fuels as MOX fuel or uranium dioxide are:[3] heat capacities, thermal conductivity and densities around  ,  and  , respectively., with radius close to  , and the temperature drop between the center line and the cladding on   or less (which result in linear power on  . With these values the gain in energy is approximately given by:

 

where   is given in  . Because the residence time of the propellant in the chamber is on   to   considering subsonic velocities of the propellant of hundreds of meters per second and meter chambers, then, with temperatures differences on   or quenching rates on   energy amplification by pulsing the core could be thousands times larger than the stationary mode. More rigorous calculations considering the transient heat transfer theory shows energy gains around hundreds or thousands times, i.e.,  .

Quenching rates on   are typical in the technology for production of amorphous metal, where extremely rapid cooling in the order of   are required.

Direct thrust amplificationEdit

The most direct way to harness the amplified energy by pulsing the nuclear core is by increasing the thrust via increasing the propellant mass flow.

Increasing the thrust in the stationary mode -where power is fixed by thermodynamic constraints, is only possible by sacrificing exhaust velocity. In fact, the power is given by

 

where   is the power,   is the thrust and   the exhaust velocity. On the other hand, thrust is given by

 

where   is the propellant mass flow. Thus, if it is desired to increase the thrust, say, n-times in the stationary mode, it will be necessary to increase  -times the propellant mass flow, and decreasing  -times the exhaust velocity. However, if the nuclear core is pulsed, thrust may be amplified  -times by amplifying the power  -times and the propellant mass flow  -times and keeping constant the exhaust velocity.

Isp amplificationEdit

 
Pulsed nuclear thermal rocket unit cell concept for Isp amplification. In this cell, hydrogen-propellant is heated by the continuous intense neutronic pulses in the propellant channels. At the same time, the unwanted energy from the fission fragments is removed by a solidary cooling channel with lithium or other liquid metal.

The attainment of high exhaust velocity or specific impulse (Isp) is the first concern. The most general expression for the Isp is given by [4]

 

being   a constant, and   the temperature of the propellant before expansion. However, the temperature of the propellant is related directly with the energy as  , where   is the Boltzmann constant. Thus,

 

being   a constant.

In a conventional stationary NTR, the energy   for heating the propellant is almost from the fission fragments which encompass almost the 95% of the total energy, and the faction of energy from prompt neutrons   is only around 5%, and therefore, in comparison, is almost negligible. However, if the nuclear core is pulsed -as previously discussed, it is able to produce   times more energy than the stationary mode, and then the fraction of prompt neutrons or   could be equal or larger than the total energy in the stationary mode; and because this neutron energy is directly transported from the fuel into the propellant as kinetic energy -unlike the energy from fission fragments which is transported as heat from the fuel into the propellant, then is not constrained by the second law of thermodynamics, meaning that there is no impediment to transport this energy from the fuel to the propellant even if the fuel is colder than the propellant, in other words, it is possible a " propellant hotter than the fuel" which is the very limit for specific impulse enhancement in classics NTRs.

In summary, if the pulse generates   times more energy than the stationary mode, the Isp amplification is given by

 

Where:

  is the amplified specific impulse,
  the specific impulse in the stationary mode,
  the fraction of prompt neutrons,
  the energy amplification by pulsing the nuclear core.

With values of   between   to   and prompt neutron fractions around  ,[5] ,[6] the hypothetical   amplification attainable makes the concept specially interesting for interplanetary spaceflight.

Advantages of the designEdit

There are several advantages relative to conventional stationary NTR designs. Because the neutron energy is transported as kinetic energy from the fuel into the propellant, then a propellant hotter than the fuel is possible and therefore the   is not limited to the maximum temperature permissible by the fuel, i.e., its melting temperature.

The other rocket concept which allows a propellant hotter than the fuel is the fission fragment rocket, however, in the pulsed rocket concept, the propellant is heated instantaneously as a burst rather than by continuous heating as in the fission fragment concept, then very high propellant temperatures are theoretically attainable immediately after the pulse, which is followed by a rapid radiative cooling. Therefore, by reducing the residence time of the propellant after the pulse will reduce the losses in propellant temperature.

Other considerationsEdit

For   amplification, only the energy from prompt neutrons -and some prompt gamma energy, is used with this purpose. The rest of the energy, i.e., the almost   from fission fragments is an unwanted energy and must be continuously evacuated by a heat removal auxiliary system using a suitable coolant,.[1] Liquid metals, and particularly lithium, can provide the fast quenching rates required.

As regard to the mechanism for pulsing the core, the pulsed mode can be produced using a different variety of configurations depending of the desired frequency of the pulsations. For instance, the use of standard control rods in a single or banked configuration with motor driving mechanism or the use of standard pneumatically operated pulsing mechanisms are suitable for generating up to 10 pulses per minute,[7] for the production of pulses at rates up to 50 pulsations per second, the use of rotating wheels introducing alternately neutron poison and fuel or neutron poison and non-neutron poison can be considered. However, for pulsations ranking the thousands of pulses per second (kHz), optical choppers or modern wheels employing magnetic bearings allow to revolve at 10 kHz.[7] If even fast pulsations are desired, then, it would be necessary the use of a new type of pulsing mechanism that does not involve mechanical motion, for example, lasers (based in the 3He polarization) as early proposed by Bowman,[8] or proton and neutron beams. For the nuclear thermal rocket frequencies in the order of 1 kHz to 10 kHz are the choice.

One aspect to be considered is that, because the large amount of energy which must be evacuated as heat (almost 95% from fission reactions) in each pulse, this imply a large dedicated e heat transfer surface,[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Arias, Francisco. J (2016). "On the Use of a Pulsed Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Interplanetary Travel". 52nd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference Salt Lake City, UT, Propulsion and Energy, (AIAA 2016–4685). doi:10.2514/6.2016-4685.
  2. ^ Waltar, Alan. E; Reynolds, Albert. B (1981). Fast Breeder Reactors. Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-025983-9.
  3. ^ Popov, S.G; Carbajo, J. J.; et al. (1996). Thermophysical Properties of MOX and UO2 Fuels Including the Effects of Irradiation. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL/TM-2000/351. Explicit use of et al. in: |author2= (help)
  4. ^ Sutton, G.P; Biblarz, O. (2010). Rocket Propulsion Elements. eight edition. John Wiley and Sons.Inc. ISBN 978-0470080245.
  5. ^ Duderstadt, James J.; Hamilton, Louis J. (1976). Nuclear Reactor Analysis. Wiley. ISBN 0471223638.
  6. ^ Glasstone, Samuel.; Sesonkse, Alexander (1994). Nuclear Reactor Engineering. Chapman and Hall. ISBN 0412985217.
  7. ^ a b William. L Whittemore (23–25 May 1995). "A continuously Pulsed Triga Reactor: An Intense Source for Neutron Scattering Experiments" (PDF). 4th meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors, Gatlinburg, TN, USA. Ref: XAD4168.
  8. ^ Bowman, C. D (1998). "Prospects for Reactor Reactivity Control Using Lasers". Transactions of American Nuclear Society, Atlanta, June 4–8.
  9. ^ Arias, Francisco. J; Parks, G. T. (2017). "Heat Removal System for Shutdown in Nuclear Thermal Rockets and Advanced Concepts". Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. doi:10.2514/1.A33663.