Historically, Ethiopia was divided into provinces, further subdivided into awrajjas or districts, until they were replaced by ethnolinguistic-based regions (kililoch) and chartered cities in 1995.[1][2]

History edit

Map of the provinces of Ethiopia in 1935. (Derived from Perham, Margery (1969):[citation needed] The Government of Ethiopia)

Pre-1936 edit

Older provinces (existing prior to the 1936–41 fascist Italian occupation), are still frequently used to indicate locations within Ethiopia. These include:

1942–1974 edit

Map of the provinces of the Ethiopian Empire

Ethiopia was divided into 12 provinces or governates-general (taklai ghizat) by Imperial Ethiopian Government Decree No. 1 of 1942 and later amendments.[3] The 12 provinces were:

Bale was created as a 13th province when it was split off from Harrarghe in 1960. Eritrea was united with Ethiopia and made a 14th province in 1962.[3]

1974–1991 edit

When the Derg took power in 1974 they relabelled the provinces as regions (kifle hager).[4]: 222  By 1981 Addis Ababa had become a separate administrative division from Shewa, and Aseb was split off from Eritrea in 1981, making 16 administrative divisions in total.[4]: 334  With the exception of Arsi (whose name derives from the eponymous Oromo subgroup, and which initially included majority-Gurage area later transferred to Shewa province (becoming Southern Shewa), all of the provinces were deliberately drawn to include multiple "tribes" (or ethnicities) so as to better facilitate national cohesion.[verification needed]

Under the 1987 Constitution of Ethiopia, the military rule of the Derg evolved into the civilian government of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and chapter 8 of the Constitution determined that the state would be subdivided into "autonomous regions" and "administrative regions". Chapter 9 gave to the National Shengo (the legislature) the power to establish the regions.[5] The Shengo established the regions in Proclamation No. 14 of 1987, on 18 September. There were thirty regions, consisting of five autonomous regions, and twenty-five administrative regions. The five autonomous regions were:[4]: 223 

The twenty-five administrative regions were:[4]: xxiii 

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Mulatu Wubneh (2017). "Ethnic Identity Politics and the Restructuring of Administrative Units in Ethiopia". International Journal of Ethiopian Studies. 11 (1 & 2): 105–138. JSTOR 26586251 – via JSTOR.
  2. ^ "Ethiopia Political Map and Regions | Mappr". www.mappr.co. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  3. ^ a b Bereket Habte Selassie (1966). "Constitutional development in Ethiopia". Journal of African Law. 10 (2): 79. JSTOR 744683.
  4. ^ a b c d Ofcansky, Thomas P.; Berry, LaVerle, eds. (1993). Country profile: Ethiopia (PDF). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  5. ^ "The Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia". Review of Socialist Law. 14 (1): 181–208. 1988. doi:10.1163/187529888X00095.