Pristimantis cosnipatae

Pristimantis cosnipatae is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae, sometimes known as Rio Cosnipata robber frog. It is endemic to Cusco Department, Peru. It is believed to only occur in the Cosñipata Valley (also spelled Kosñipata).[1][3] The specific name cosnipatae refers to this valley.[2] Last seen in 1999, this species is considered "critically endangered".[1]

Pristimantis cosnipatae
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Craugastoridae
Genus: Pristimantis
P. cosnipatae
Binomial name
Pristimantis cosnipatae
(Duellman [fr], 1978)

Eleutherodactylus cosnipatae Duellman, 1978[2]


Pristimantis cosnipatae is a robust-bodied small frog. Adult males measure 21.8–29.5 mm (0.86–1.16 in) in snout–vent length. Head is longer than it is wide and the snout is long and narrow. The tympanum is prominent. Forearms are short and robust, and hind limbs are moderately short and robust. The fingers and the toes have lateral fringes and bear wide, truncate discs. The dorsum is finely shagreened and grayish tan to reddish brown in color, with dark brown markings. The iris is bronze and has a median horizontal red streak.[2]

It has been suggested that before 2012 when Paedophryne amauensis was described, Pristimantis cosnipatae held the record for world's smallest frog.[4] However, this species is not particularly small.[5]

The male advertisement call is a soft "wraank".[2]

Habitat and conservationEdit

Its natural habitat is tall submontane and montane cloud forest, with some tree ferns and bromeliads and rich undergrowth of mosses and ferns, at elevations of 1,580–1,700 m (5,180–5,580 ft) above sea level. The species was last seen in 1999, despite several targeted surveys, the latest one in 2016. A possible cause is chytridiomycosis. A part of the range is within the Manú National Park, offering good protection (if the species still persists).[1]


  1. ^ a b c d IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2017). "Pristimantis cosnipatae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T56526A89206416. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T56526A89206416.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Duellman, W. E. (1978). "New species of leptodactylid frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus from the Cosñipata Valley, Peru". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 91: 418–430.
  3. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2018). "Pristimantis cosnipatae (Duellman, 1978)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  4. ^ Dimitrios Beredimas (31 May 2014). "Paedophryne amauensis: World's smallest vertebrate (and frog)". Strange Animals. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  5. ^ Rittmeyer, E. N.; Allison, A.; Gründler, M. C.; Thompson, D. K. & Austin, C. C. (2012). "Ecological guild evolution and the discovery of the world's smallest vertebrate". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e29797. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029797. PMC 3256195. PMID 22253785.