Primary immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.[1] To be considered a primary immunodeficiency (PID), the immune deficiency must be inborn, not caused by secondary factors such as other disease, drug treatment, or environmental exposure to toxins. Most primary immunodeficiencies are genetic disorders; the majority are diagnosed in children under the age of one, although milder forms may not be recognized until adulthood. While there are over 430 recognized inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) as of 2019, the vast majority of which are PIDs, most are very rare.[2][3][4] About 1 in 500 people in the United States are born with a primary immunodeficiency.[5] Immune deficiencies can result in persistent or recurring infections, auto-inflammatory disorders, tumors, and disorders of various organs. There are currently limited treatments available for these conditions; most are specific to a particular type of PID. Research is currently evaluating the use of stem cell transplants (HSCT) and experimental gene therapies as avenues for treatment in limited subsets of PIDs.

Signs and symptomsEdit

The precise symptoms of a primary immunodeficiency depend on the type of defect. Generally, the symptoms and signs that lead to the diagnosis of an immunodeficiency include recurrent or persistent infections or developmental delay as a result of infection. Particular organ problems (e.g. diseases involving the skin, heart, facial development and skeletal system) may be present in certain conditions. Others predispose to autoimmune disease, where the immune system attacks the body's own tissues, or tumours (sometimes specific forms of cancer, such as lymphoma). The nature of the infections, as well as the additional features, may provide clues as to the exact nature of the immune defect.[5]

CausesEdit

By definition, primary immune deficiencies are due to genetic causes. They may result from a single genetic defect, but most are multifactorial. They may be caused by recessive or dominant inheritance. Some are latent, and require a certain environmental trigger to become manifest, like the presence in the environment of a reactive allergen. Other problems become apparent due to aging of bodily and cellular maintenance processes.

DiagnosisEdit

The basic tests performed when an immunodeficiency is suspected should include a full blood count (including accurate lymphocyte and granulocyte counts) and immunoglobulin levels (the three most important types of antibodies: IgG, IgA and IgM).[6][5]

Other tests are performed depending on the suspected disorder:[5][6]

Due to the rarity of many primary immunodeficiencies, many of the above tests are highly specialised and tend to be performed in research laboratories.[5]

Criteria for diagnosis were agreed in 1999. For instance, an antibody deficiency can be diagnosed in the presence of low immunoglobulins, recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish between "definitive", "probable" and "possible" in the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency. "Definitive" diagnosis is made when it is likely that in 20 years, the patient has a >98% chance of the same diagnosis being made; this level of diagnosis is achievable with the detection of a genetic mutation or very specific circumstantial abnormalities. "Probable" diagnosis is made when no genetic diagnosis can be made, but the patient has all other characteristics of a particular disease; the chance of the same diagnosis being made 20 years later is estimated to be 85-97%. Finally, a "possible" diagnosis is made when the patient has only some of the characteristics of a disease which are present, but not all.[7]

ClassificationsEdit

There are many forms of PID. The International Union of Immunological Societies recognizes nine classes of primary immunodeficiencies, totaling over 120 conditions. A 2014 update of the classification guide added a 9th category and added 30 new gene defects from the prior 2009 version.[8][9] As of 2019, there are approximately 430 forms of PID that have been identified.[4]

Different forms of PID have different mechanisms. Rough categorizations of conditions divide them into humoral immunity disorders, T-cell and B-cell disorders, phagocytic disorders, and complement disorders.[10]

Most forms of PID are very rare. IgA deficiency is an exception, and is present in 1 in 500 people. Some of the more frequently seen forms of PID include common variable immunodeficiency, severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, ataxia–telangiectasia,[11]

TreatmentEdit

The treatment of primary immunodeficiencies depends foremost on the nature of the abnormality. Somatic treatment of primarily genetic defects is in its infancy. Most treatment is therefore passive and palliative, and falls into two modalities: managing infections and boosting the immune system.

Reduction of exposure to pathogens may be recommended, and in many situations prophylactic antibiotics or antivirals may be advised.

In the case of humoral immune deficiency, immunoglobulin replacement therapy in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) may be available. Antibiotic prophylaxis is also commonly used to prevent respiratory tract infections in these patients.[12]

In cases of autoimmune disorders, immunosuppression therapies like corticosteroids may be prescribed.

For primary immunodeficiencies that are caused by genetic mutation does not exist a causal therapy that would "repair" the mutation. Although there is a therapeutic option, gene therapy which has been in a trial for few immune deficiencies affecting the hematopoietic system. Over the past two decades there were some successful treatments of patients with specific primary immunodeficiencies (PID), including X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome and metabolic conditions such as leukodystrophy.[13]

Gene therapy evolved in the 90s from using of gammaretroviral vectors to more specific self-inactivating vector platforms around 2006.[14] The viral vectors randomly insert their sequences into the genomes. However, it is rarely used because of a risk of developing post-treatment T-cell leukemia as a result of interfering tumor-suppressor genes[14] and because of ethical issues.[15] But the progress in gene therapy is promising for the future of treating primary immunodeficiencies.[11]

EpidemiologyEdit

A survey of 10,000 American households revealed that the prevalence of diagnosed primary immunodeficiency approaches 1 in 1200. This figure does not take into account people with mild immune system defects who have not received a formal diagnosis.[16]

Milder forms of primary immunodeficiency, such as selective immunoglobulin A deficiency, are fairly common, with random groups of people (such as otherwise healthy blood donors) having a rate of 1:600. Other disorders are distinctly more uncommon, with incidences between 1:100,000 and 1:2,000,000 being reported.[5]

ResearchEdit

Bone marrow transplant may be possible for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency and other severe immunodeficiences.[17]

Virus-specific T-lymphocytes (VST) therapy is used for patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that has proven to be unsuccessful. It is a treatment that has been effective in preventing and treating viral infections after HSCT. VST therapy uses active donor T-cells that are isolated from alloreactive T-cells which have proven immunity against one or more viruses. Such donor T-cells often cause acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a subject of ongoing investigation. VSTs have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral antigens. This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10–12 days by using specific cytokines from adult donors or virus-naive cord blood. This treatment is far quicker and with a substantially higher success rate than the 3–6 months it takes to carry out HSCT on a patient diagnosed with a primary immunodeficiency.[18] T-lymphocyte therapies are still in the experimental stage; few are even in clinical trials, none have been FDA approved, and availability in clinical practice may be years or even a decade or more away.

Induced pluripotent stem cells obtained reprogramming patients' cells, for example leukocytes, are a promising tool to study these pathologies and develop personalized therapies.[19]

HistoryEdit

X-linked agammaglobulinemia was one of the first described primary immunodeficiencies, discovered by Ogden Bruton in 1952.[4][20] Primary immunodeficiencies were initially classified in 1970 by a committee of the World Health Organization. At the time, they identified 16 immunodeficiencies. By 1998, the number had reached 50.[21]

Discovery of novel genetic causes of innate immunodeficiencies accelerated greatly in the 2010s due to high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies.[22] As of 2019, more than 430 have been categorized.[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Erjavec SO, Gelfman S, Abdelaziz AR, Lee EY, Monga I, Alkelai A, et al. (February 2022). "Whole exome sequencing in Alopecia Areata identifies rare variants in KRT82". Nature Communications. 13 (1): 800. Bibcode:2022NatCo..13..800E. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28343-3. PMC 8831607. PMID 35145093.
  2. ^ Casanova JL, Abel L (January 2021). "Lethal Infectious Diseases as Inborn Errors of Immunity: Toward a Synthesis of the Germ and Genetic Theories". Annual Review of Pathology. 16: 23–50. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-031920-101429. PMC 7923385. PMID 32289233.
  3. ^ Notarangelo LD, Bacchetta R, Casanova JL, Su HC (July 2020). "Human inborn errors of immunity: An expanding universe". Science Immunology. 5 (49): eabb1662. doi:10.1126/sciimmunol.abb1662. PMC 7647049. PMID 32651211.
  4. ^ a b c d Tangye SG, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, Chatila T, Cunningham-Rundles C, Etzioni A, et al. (January 2020). "Human Inborn Errors of Immunity: 2019 Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee". Journal of Clinical Immunology. 40 (1): 24–64. doi:10.1007/s10875-019-00737-x. PMC 7082301. PMID 31953710.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Lim MS, Elenitoba-Johnson KS (May 2004). "The molecular pathology of primary immunodeficiencies". The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. 6 (2): 59–83. doi:10.1016/S1525-1578(10)60493-X. PMC 1867474. PMID 15096561.
  6. ^ a b Grammatikos A, Bright P, Bhatnagar R, Johnston S (September 2020). "How to investigate a suspected immune deficiency in adults". Respiratory Medicine. 171: 106100. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106100. PMID 32799060. S2CID 221143773.
  7. ^ Conley ME, Notarangelo LD, Etzioni A (December 1999). "Diagnostic criteria for primary immunodeficiencies. Representing PAGID (Pan-American Group for Immunodeficiency) and ESID (European Society for Immunodeficiencies)". Clinical Immunology. 93 (3): 190–197. doi:10.1006/clim.1999.4799. PMID 10600329.
  8. ^ Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, Casanova JL, Chatila T, Conley ME, Cunningham-Rundles C, et al. (22 April 2014). "Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update on the classification from the international union of immunological societies expert committee for primary immunodeficiency". Frontiers in Immunology. 5: 162. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00162. PMC 4001072. PMID 24795713.
  9. ^ Notarangelo L, Casanova JL, Conley ME, Chapel H, Fischer A, Puck J, et al. (April 2006). "Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update from the International Union of Immunological Societies Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Classification Committee Meeting in Budapest, 2005". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 117 (4): 883–896. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1347. PMID 16680902.
  10. ^ Cooper MA, Pommering TL, Korányi K (November 2003). "Primary immunodeficiencies". American Family Physician. 68 (10): 2001–2008. PMID 14655810.
  11. ^ a b McCusker C, Warrington R (November 2011). "Primary immunodeficiency". Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology. 7 (Suppl 1): S11. doi:10.1186/1710-1492-7-S1-S11. PMC 3245434. PMID 22165913.
  12. ^ Grammatikos A, Albur M, Gompels M, Barnaby CL, Allan S, Johnston S (October 2020). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in antibody deficient patients: A retrospective cohort study". Clinical Infection in Practice. 7–8: 100048. doi:10.1016/j.clinpr.2020.100048. S2CID 228965989.
  13. ^ Booth C, Romano R, Roncarolo MG, Thrasher AJ (October 2019). "Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency". Human Molecular Genetics. 28 (R1): R15–R23. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddz170. PMID 31297531.
  14. ^ a b Cavazzana M, Six E, Lagresle-Peyrou C, André-Schmutz I, Hacein-Bey-Abina S (February 2016). "Gene Therapy for X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Where Do We Stand?". Human Gene Therapy. 27 (2): 108–116. doi:10.1089/hum.2015.137. PMC 4779287. PMID 26790362.
  15. ^ Rabino I (2003). "Gene therapy: ethical issues". Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. 24 (1): 31–58. doi:10.1023/a:1022967623162. PMID 12735489. S2CID 34605125.
  16. ^ Boyle JM, Buckley RH (September 2007). "Population prevalence of diagnosed primary immunodeficiency diseases in the United States". Journal of Clinical Immunology. 27 (5): 497–502. doi:10.1007/s10875-007-9103-1. PMID 17577648.
  17. ^ Porta F, Forino C, De Martiis D, Soncini E, Notarangelo L, Tettoni K, et al. (June 2008). "Stem cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiencies". Bone Marrow Transplantation. 41 (Suppl 2): S83–S86. doi:10.1038/bmt.2008.61. PMID 18545252.
  18. ^ Naik S, Nicholas SK, Martinez CA, Leen AM, Hanley PJ, Gottschalk SM, et al. (May 2016). "Adoptive immunotherapy for primary immunodeficiency disorders with virus-specific T lymphocytes". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 137 (5): 1498–1505.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1311. PMC 4860050. PMID 26920464.
  19. ^ Genova E, Cavion F, Lucafò M, Pelin M, Lanzi G, Masneri S, et al. (August 2020). "Biomarkers and Precision Therapy for Primary Immunodeficiencies: An In Vitro Study Based on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells From Patients". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 108 (2): 358–367. doi:10.1002/cpt.1837. PMID 32243572.
  20. ^ Bruton OC (June 1952). "Agammaglobulinemia". Pediatrics. 9 (6): 722–728. doi:10.1542/peds.9.6.722. PMID 14929630. S2CID 245180200.
  21. ^ Picard C, Bobby Gaspar H, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, Casanova JL, Chatila T, et al. (January 2018). "International Union of Immunological Societies: 2017 Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Committee Report on Inborn Errors of Immunity". Journal of Clinical Immunology. 38 (1): 96–128. doi:10.1007/s10875-017-0464-9. PMC 5742601. PMID 29226302.
  22. ^ Bucciol G, Moens L, Bosch B, Bossuyt X, Casanova JL, Puel A, Meyts I (February 2019). "Lessons learned from the study of human inborn errors of innate immunity". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 143 (2): 507–527. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2018.07.013. PMC 6358521. PMID 30075154.

External linksEdit