Open main menu

Humoral immune deficiencies are conditions which cause impairment of humoral immunity, which can lead to immunodeficiency. It can be mediated by insufficient number or function of B cells, the plasma cells they differentiate into, or the antibody secreted by the plasma cells.[6] The most common such immunodeficiency is inherited selective IgA deficiency, occurring between 1 in 100 and 1 in 1000 persons, depending on population.They are associated with increased vulnerability to infection, but can be difficult to detect (or asymptomatic) in the absence of infection.They can be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.[medical citation needed]

Humoral immune deficiency
Original antigenic sin.svg
B cells and antibody
SpecialtyHematology Edit this on Wikidata
CausesAbsent B cells(primary)[1][2], Multiple myeloma(secondary)[3]
Diagnostic methodB cell count, Family medical history[4][5]
TreatmentImmunoglobulin replacement therapy[4]


Signs and symptomsEdit

Signs/symptoms of humoral immune deficiency depend on the cause, but generally include signs of infection such as:[7]


Cause of this deficiency is divided into primary and secondary:

Hyper-IgM syndromes(immunoglobulin M)
  • Secondary secondary (or acquired) forms of humoral immune deficiency are mainly due to hematopoietic malignancies and infections that disrupt the immune system:[3]


Human B cell

In terms of diagnosis of humoral immune deficiency depends upon the following:[4][5]


Treatment for B cell deficiency(humoral immune deficiency) depends on the cause, however generally the following applies:[4]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Pure B-Cell Disorders: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". 2017-01-06.
  2. ^ a b Notarangelo L, Casanova JL, Conley ME, et al. (2006). "Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update from the International Union of Immunological Societies Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Classification Committee Meeting in Budapest, 2005". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117 (4): 883–96. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.12.1347. PMID 16680902.
  3. ^ a b Page 432, Chapter 22, Table 22.1 in: Jones, Jane; Bannister, Barbara A.; Gillespie, Stephen H. (2006). Infection: Microbiology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2665-6.
  4. ^ a b c d Fried, Ari J.; Bonilla, Francisco A. (2009-07-01). "Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Primary Antibody Deficiencies and Infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 22 (3): 396–414. doi:10.1128/CMR.00001-09. ISSN 0893-8512. PMC 2708392. PMID 19597006.
  5. ^ a b Cecil, Russell La Fayette; Goldman, Lee; Schafer, Andrew I. (2012-01-01). Goldman's Cecil Medicine, Expert Consult Premium Edition -- Enhanced Online Features and Print, Single Volume,24: Goldman's Cecil Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1618. ISBN 978-1437716047.
  6. ^ Pieper, Kathrin; Grimbacher, Bodo; Eibel, Hermann (2013-04-01). "B-cell biology and development". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 131 (4): 959–971. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.046. ISSN 0091-6749. PMID 23465663.
  7. ^ N. Franklin Adkinson Jr.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Burks, Wesley; Busse, William W.; Holgate, Stephen T. (2013-11-01). Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1134. ISBN 9780323085939.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit