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Prenolepis imparis

Prenolepis imparis, commonly known as the winter ant, false honey ant, or false honeypot ant, is a species of ant in the genus Prenolepis.[1] The species is found in North America, from Canada to Mexico, nesting deep within the ground. Unusual among ants, Prenolepis imparis prefers lower temperatures, including near freezing, and is only active outside the nest during winter and early spring.[2] Prenolepis imparis enters a hibernation-like state called aestivation during the summer.

Prenolepis imparis
Prenolepis imparis casent0005429 profile 1.jpg
Prenolepis imparis worker
Scientific classification
P. imparis
Binomial name
Prenolepis imparis
(Thomas Say, 1836)
Prenolepis imparis, male

P. imparis secretes an opaque white liquid from its abdomen as a defense against other ants, including Linepithema humile.[3]


  • Prenolepis imparis arizonica Wheeler., 1930
  • Prenolepis imparis colimana Wheeler, 1930
  • Prenolepis imparis coloradensis Wheeler, 1930
  • Prenolepis imparis veracruzensis Wheeler, 1930


  1. ^ Bolton, B. (2015). "Prenolepis imparis". AntCat. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  2. ^ Tschinkel, W. R. (1987). "Seasonal life history and nest architecture of a winter-active ant, Prenolepis imparis". Insectes Sociaux. 34 (3): 143–164. doi:10.1007/bf02224081.
  3. ^ Sorrells, Trevor R.; Kuritzky, Leah Y.; Kauhanen, Peter G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine; Sturgis, Shelby J.; Chen, Jimmy; Dijamco, Cheri A.; Basurto, Kimberly N.; Gordon, Deborah M. (2011). "Chemical Defense by the Native Winter Ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the Invasive Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile)". PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018717.

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Prenolepis imparis at Wikimedia Commons
  • AntWiki has information on the identification, distribution, and biology of Prenolepis imparis.