Prehistoric Hong Kong
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Prehistoric Hong Kong is the period between the arrival of the first humans in Hong Kong and the start of recorded Chinese history first appeared during the Han dynasty. The history of the southern region (which may possibly include Hong Kong) is reckoned to have been first recorded in 214 BC with Qin Shi Huang conquering the Baiyue and creating the Jiaozhou province.
Evidence of an Upper Paleolithic settlement in Hong Kong was found at Wong Tei Tung in Sham Chung beside the Three Fathoms Cove in Sai Kung Peninsula. There were 6000 artefacts found in a slope in the area and jointly confirmed by the Hong Kong Archaeological Society and Centre for Lingnan Archaeology of Zhongshan University. It is believed that the Three Fathom Cove was a river valley during that period and ancient people collected stone tools from the lithic manufacturing site in Wong Tei Tung to the settlement in near Tolo Harbour and Mirs Bay.
The Neolithic Era began approximately 7,000 years ago in Hong Kong. Excavations of Tung Wan Tsai North (Ma Wan) and Sha Tau Kok reveal evidence of pottery during this time, but it does not reveal if there was pottery before this time due to the lack of absolute dates. The Neolithic period in this area was divided into four different phases. Phase one was when the Neolithic era began around 7000 years ago. The second phase was around 6500-6000 BP when white and painted chalkware were present along with ground adzes and axes along with flaked points. The third phase began around 6000-5000 BP, identified by white chalkware with incisions and shouldered stone implements. The final phase was around 5000-3500 BP with the presence of pottery with geometric patterns, stepped adze, shouldered adze and more ground stone implements. 
Hong Kong is located on the coast of South China. Unlike northern China, the settlers in this area were the Che people (Chinese: 輋族). Excavated Neolithic artefacts suggest a difference from northern Chinese Stone-Age cultures, including the Longshan. Excavated sites in Hong Kong were largely located on the western shores of Hong Kong. This location was most likely chosen to avoid strong winds from the southeast and to collect food from the nearby shores. Settlement can be found in Cheung Chau, Lantau Island and Lamma Island.
The coming of the Warring States period brought an influx of Yuet people from the north into the area. They probably avoided the instabilities at the north and went south. Bronze fishing, combat, and ritual tools were excavated on Lantau Island and Lamma Island. Ma Wan was the earliest settlement with direct evidents in Hong Kong. Another one is Lung Kwu Tan. Bronze tools were found on Lantau Island, Cheung Chau, Chek Lap Kok as well. Regular holes on the ground were found in Ha Pak Nai. It is believed they were the foundations of grand houses of that period.
The Yuet people were competing and assimilating with indigenous Che people. It is believed that there were wars between them. Qin Shi Huang of the Qin Dynasty sent large numbers of soldiers and Qin subjects to Guangdong and made the competition harder. According to recent archaeological findings, there were possibly many significant differences between the Yue civilisation and the Qin-Han dynasties. According to the historical records written during the Han dynasty, the Yue people (who originated in the Southern region of the current China along the Pearl River) were mainly barbarians with little or no civilisation. However, there is archaeological evidence suggesting that the Yue civilisation was a sophisticated and advanced.
There are still no written documents or artefacts related to Qin rules and early Han Dynasty rules. The excavation of Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb of later Han dynasty effectively brings Hong Kong out of prehistory.
- Big Wave Bay on Hong Kong Island
- Cape Collinson on Hong Kong Island. Discovered in October 2018.
- Cheung Chau
- Kau Sai Chau
- Lung Ha Wan in Sai Kung District
- Po Toi Island
- Shek Pik on Lantau Island
- Tung Lung Island
- Wong Chuk Hang
Besides the stones circles and the rock carvings, several prehistoric sites have been studied in Hong Kong. They include:
- Ma Wan - Prehistoric remains have been found from the Mid-Neolithic Age (about 3000 BC), the late Neolithic Age (about 2000 BC), the early to late Bronze Age of coastal South China (1500–500 BC).
- Wong Tei Tung, on the Sai Kung Peninsula
- Other excavations of the Hong Kong Archaeological Society
- Wu, Weihong; Wang, Hong; Tan, Huizhong; Zhang, Zhenhong (2004). "2004 Trial Excavation at Wong Tei Tung Spot, Sham Chung, Archaeological Site, Hong Kong SAR" (PDF). Hong Kong Archaeological Society. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- 2005 Field Archaeology on Sham Chung Site Archived 3 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Internet Archaeol. 26. Davis and Ixer. Summary. The Petrology of the Wong Tei Tung Stone Tool Manufacturing Site, Sham Chung, Hong Kong Sar, China". intarch.ac.uk. 30 September 2009. doi:10.11141/ia.26.8. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Lu, Tracey. "The Origin and Development of Neolithic Cultures in Hong Kong" (PDF). Department of Anthropology, CUHK. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Meacham, William (2008). The Archaeology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-9622099258.
- Finn, Daniel J. (1958). Archaeological finds on Lamma Island near Hong Kong. Ricci Hall, University of Hong Kong. ASIN B0006CLFNI. OCLC 1500813.
- S.G. Davis, Shirlee Edelstein, Madeleine H. Tang, "Rock Carvings in Hong Kong and the New Territories", 26 September 1973
- "Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carvings at Big Wave Bay". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Rock Carving at Cape Collinson
- "Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carving on Cheung Chau". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carving on Kau Sai Chau". Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carvings at Lung Ha Wan". Archived from the original on 13 August 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carvings on Po Toi
- "Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carvings at Shek Pik". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carving on Tung Lung Chau
- Antiquities and Monuments Office: Rock Carvings at Wong Chuk Hang
- Meacham, William (2008). The Archaeology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 123–129. ISBN 978-962-209-925-8.
- Rogers, P., Widdowson, E.. Midden Excavation in Theory and Practice: a Han period midden site at Tung Wan Tsai, Ma Wan Island, Hong Kong Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, North America, 7, Oct. 2009
- Report on the Date of the Wong Tei Tung Archaeological Assemblage, Tracey L-D Lu, Dept. of Anthropology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30 April 2007
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