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Pradyumna (Sanskrit: प्रद्युम्न) is the name of a character in the Srimad Bhagavatam. He was the son of Lord Krishna and Rukmini. Pradyumna is considered as one of the four vyuha avatars of Vishnu. According to some accounts, Pradyumna was an incarnation of Kamadeva, the god of love. Pradyumna is also a name of the Hindu god Vishnu. He is one in 24 Keshava Namas (names), praised in all pujas. It is also the only name in Sanskrit with all the 3 letters joint (referred as जोडाक्षर)

AffiliationAvatar of kamadeva
FamilyKrishna (father) Rukmini(mother)
SpousesMayavati, Rukhmavati, Prabhavati

The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatar.


Birth, Childhood & YouthEdit

Pradyumna Kills Sambara.

Pradyumna was son of Lord Krishna and 61st grandson of Adinarayan. His mother was Rukmini, whom Lord Krishna got from her father Bhishmaka and brother Rukmi. Pradyumna was born in Dvaraka. He was the incarnate of god Kamdev. In the sat Yuga, Kamdev was burnt by Shiva when he became a barrier to Shiva's meditation. Shiva blessed Kamdev's distraught wife, Rati and promised her that in his next birth Kamdev will be a part of Krishna and Rati will be the daughter of Rukmi and that she will marry him. When he was a baby, he was abducted by the demon Sambara. He was then cast into the sea and swallowed by a fish, but that fish was caught and carried to the house of Sambara. The fish was opened and the child was found inside. He was given to a woman in Sambara's house to raise. Narada informed her about the true identity of the child. When Pradyumna grew up, he battled the demon Sambara and killed him using the Vaishnavastra. Soon after Pradyumna became a constant companion of his father Krishna and was well liked by the people of Dvaraka. Pradyumna was a mighty Maharathi warrior. He possessed the extremely rare Vaishnavastra which is the most powerful weapon in the universe. Also he was one of the very few people to know the secret of the Chakra Vyuha. According to Mahabharata, Pradyumna trained Abhimanyu and Upapandavas in warfare. But Pradyumna did not participate in the Kurukshetra War as he went on a pilgrimage with his uncle Balarama and other yadavas.

Balarama is embraced Yudhisthira with Akrura and Pradyumna and went to Pilgrimage.

But he was an active participant In ashwameda yagna which was later conducted by Yudishtira. In accordance to Lord Shiva's boon to Rati, he married her incarnation, Princess Mayavati, the Princess of Vidarbha and daughter of his maternal uncle, Rukmi. It is said that Mayavati found his valor, handsomeness and charm beyond words and insisted on marrying him at her swayamvara. With her, he fathered, Krishna's grandson and favourite, also considered a vyuha avatar of Vishnu, Aniruddha. Pradyumna was later killed in an intoxicated brawl at Dvaraka that resulted in the death of most Yadava warriors.


Aniruddha was the son of Pradyumna and Rukhavati, who married to Usha (daughter of Bana Daitya and granddaughter of Mahabali). He is said to have been very much like his grandfather Krishna, to the extent that he may be a jana avatar, avatar of Vishnu. Aniruddha had a son named Vajra (or Vajranabh) . Vajra was known as an invincible warrior and would remain among the few survivors of the Yadus' battle. King Vajra then had 16 idols of Krishna and other gods carved from a rare, imperishable stone called Braja and built temples to house these idols in and around Mathura so as to feel the presence of Lord Krishna. It is said that Pradyumna and Arjuna were equivalent in their skills.


The Jain version of the story of Pradyumna is mentioned in the Pradyumna-charitra (poem in 18 canons) of Rajchandra, written in 1618 AD.[1]




  • Krishnamachariar, M. (1989) [1937], History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0284-5