Port Hawkesbury

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Port Hawkesbury (Scottish Gaelic: Baile a' Chlamhain) is a town located on the southwestern end of Cape Breton Island, on the north shore of the Strait of Canso, opposite of the town of Mulgrave, in Nova Scotia's Inverness County. Positioned as the gateway to Cape Breton just minutes from the Canso Causeway, the town's nickname is "Cape Breton's Front Porch."

Port Hawkesbury

Gaelic: Baile a' Chlamhain / An Gut
Town
Port Hawksbury Big Boat (208622829).jpg
Official seal of Port Hawkesbury
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Cape Breton's Front Porch
Port Hawkesbury is located in Nova Scotia
Port Hawkesbury
Port Hawkesbury
Location of Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia
Port Hawkesbury is located in Canada
Port Hawkesbury
Port Hawkesbury
Port Hawkesbury (Canada)
Coordinates: 45°36′55″N 61°21′51″W / 45.61528°N 61.36417°W / 45.61528; -61.36417Coordinates: 45°36′55″N 61°21′51″W / 45.61528°N 61.36417°W / 45.61528; -61.36417
CountryCanada
ProvinceNova Scotia
MunicipalityInverness County
Founded1789
IncorporatedJanuary 22, 1889
Government
 • MayorBrenda Chisholm-Beaton[1]
 • Governing BodyPort Hawkesbury Town Council
Area
 (2016)[2]
 • Total8.10 km2 (3.13 sq mi)
Highest elevation
54 m (177 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 • Total3,214
 • Density396.6/km2 (1,027/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-3 (ADT)
Postal code
B9A
Area code(s)902
Telephone Exchange625
Median Earnings*$48,141
NTS Map011F11
GNBC CodeCBELL
Websitetownofporthawkesbury.ca
  • Median household income, 2005 ($) (all households)

HistoryEdit

The end of glaciation began 13,500 years ago[5] and ended with the region becoming largely ice free 11,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of Palaeo-Indian settlement in the region follows rapidly after deglaciation.[6]

Several thousand years ago the territory of the province became known a part of the territory of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. Mi'kma'ki includes what is now the Maritimes, parts of Maine, Newfoundland and the Gaspé Peninsula. The town of Port Hawkesbury is in the traditional Mi'kmaw district of Unama'ki.

In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada (and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.[7][8] While the French established the first European settlements on Île Royale (as the French called Unama'ki) at present day Englishtown in 1629 and the following year at St. Peter's, just 40 kilometers away from present day Port Hawksbury, neither settlement lasted past 1659. European settlers did not return to the island until Louisbourg were re-established by the French in 1713. By 1763 most of Acadia, including what had now become Cape Breton Island had come under British control.

 
Port Hawkesbury waterfront, 1890

Founded in 1789 as Ship Harbour, Port Hawkesbury was renamed in honour of Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, who commanded the ship that brought Governor Edward Cornwallis to Halifax.[3][4] Incorproated in 1889, the community built ships for the timber export trade in the early and mid 19th century, such as the brig James, the subject of one of the earliest ship portraits in Canada.[4] Schooners and fishing boats were also built for the inshore and banks fishery by firms such as the noted boat builder H.W. Embree and Sons.

Today the town is largely a service centre for western Cape Breton Island, with many of its residents working in large industries, particularly the pulp and paper plant in the industrial park located in the adjacent community of Point Tupper, Richmond County.

GovernmentEdit

 
Canso causeway at Port Hawkesbury

The Town of Port Hawkesbury is governed by a Council composed of a Mayor and four Councillors elected at-large. [23] The mayor is Brenda Chisholm-Beaton.[5] Day to day activities are managed by a Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) who is accountable to Council.[25]Municipal governments in Nova Scotia are elected every four years and the most recent round of elections took place on October 15, 2016.[26] The provincial legislation that creates and empowers the municipality is the Nova Scotia Municipal Government Act.[27]

Municipal Council is responsible for all facets of the municipal government, including directly delivered and shared or regional services. Directly delivered services include services such fire, public works, roads, as well as the municipally owned and operated electrical and water utilities. The municipality participates in shared services, such as library services and policing. The town's municipal operating budget was $7.8 million in the 2018/19 fiscal year.[28]

Port Hawkesbury is represented in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly by Alana Paon, elected to the riding of Cape Breton-Richmond, and in Canada's House of Commons by Mike Kelloway, elected to represent the riding of Cape Breton—Canso.

EconomyEdit

In 2006 the Port of Port Hawkesbury was the second largest by annual tonnage in Canada, second only to Vancouver, British Columbia, due to large volumes of crushed rock and gravel shipments and oil trans-shipments. It handled 31.6 million metric tonnes in 2006, of which 21.6 million tonnes was crude petroleum.[6] By 2011, the volume of annual tonnage had dropped to 23.7 million tonnes, making it the 7th largest port in Canada.[7]

The port is served by tugs of Svitzer Towing such as the tug Point Chebucto.[8] Historically it was a stop for American coastal steam ships.[9]

Located in neighbouring Port Tupper, the Port Hawkesbury Mill began operation in 1962. The overwhelming majority of the paper produced is exported to the United States.[10] The mill has the capability to produce nearly 400,000 tons of supercalendered paper, or 25-20% of the market for that type of paper.[11] The mill was closed for a year 2011-12, following the 2008 financial crisis, but by 2018 the company reported its annual order book was once again full.[12]

GeographyEdit

 
NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island

Port Hawkesbury is located inside Inverness County. The land area of the municipality is 8.1 square kilometres with a population density (2016) of just 396.6 persons per square kilometer. This compares to the provincial land area of 52,940 square kilometres and population density of 17.4 persons per square kilometre.[13]

ClimateEdit

Port Hawkesbury experiences a Humid continental climate (Dfb). Due to the proximity to surrounding bodies of water, seasons tend to be delayed when compared to areas further inland. Precipitation is high, with the fall and winter being the wettest time of year and summer being the driest. Winters are cold, snowy and stormy with frequent snowstorms. Summer is the most pleasant time of year, with significantly less precipitation and warm temperatures.

The highest (reliable) temperature ever recorded in the strait area was 35.0 °C (95 °F) on 7 July 1912 and 19 July 1975.[14][15] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −28.5 °C (−19 °F) on 7 February 1993.

Climate data for Port Hawkesbury Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1885–present[a]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
13.6
(56.5)
23.7
(74.7)
27.1
(80.8)
31.7
(89.1)
34.0
(93.2)
35.0
(95.0)
34.0
(93.2)
33.0
(91.4)
26.5
(79.7)
25.6
(78.1)
16.0
(60.8)
35.0
(95.0)
Average high °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.0
(33.8)
6.6
(43.9)
13.2
(55.8)
19.2
(66.6)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73.0)
18.6
(65.5)
12.8
(55.0)
7.0
(44.6)
0.6
(33.1)
10.0
(50.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−7.2
(19.0)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.7
(36.9)
8.3
(46.9)
13.9
(57.0)
17.8
(64.0)
18.2
(64.8)
14.0
(57.2)
9.0
(48.2)
3.7
(38.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
5.7
(42.3)
Average low °C (°F) −10.2
(13.6)
−11.6
(11.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
3.3
(37.9)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
13.6
(56.5)
9.4
(48.9)
5.1
(41.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−6.0
(21.2)
1.4
(34.5)
Record low °C (°F) −27.0
(−16.6)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−13.5
(7.7)
−7.0
(19.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.1
(34.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
−7.2
(19.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−28.5
(−19.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 121.2
(4.77)
115.7
(4.56)
113.4
(4.46)
106.4
(4.19)
98.1
(3.86)
97.3
(3.83)
96.2
(3.79)
81.8
(3.22)
116.6
(4.59)
156.5
(6.16)
146.9
(5.78)
133.6
(5.26)
1,383.6
(54.47)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 55.6
(2.19)
48.6
(1.91)
74.2
(2.92)
91.9
(3.62)
97.5
(3.84)
97.3
(3.83)
96.2
(3.79)
81.8
(3.22)
116.6
(4.59)
156.4
(6.16)
133.1
(5.24)
81.0
(3.19)
1,130.1
(44.49)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 65.6
(25.8)
67.1
(26.4)
39.3
(15.5)
14.5
(5.7)
0.6
(0.2)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.0)
13.8
(5.4)
52.6
(20.7)
253.5
(99.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 101.4 120.7 139.3 156.1 191.2 221.4 227.3 224.0 172.7 137.0 98.8 78.8 1,868.7
Source: Environment Canada[16][17][18][19][20] (Sunshine data recorded at Eddy Point)

DemographicsEdit

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Port Hawkesbury recorded a population of 3,214 living in 1,345 of its 1,554 total private dwellings, a change of -4.5% from its 2011 population of 3,366. With a land area of 8.1 km2 (3.1 sq mi), it had a population density of 396.8/km2 (1,027.7/sq mi) in 2016.[21]

YearPop.±%
1901633—    
1911684+8.1%
1921869+27.0%
19311,011+16.3%
19411,031+2.0%
19511,034+0.3%
19561,078+4.3%
19611,346+24.9%
YearPop.±%
19813,850+186.0%
19863,869+0.5%
19913,991+3.2%
19963,809−4.6%
20013,701−2.8%
20063,517−5.0%
20113,366−4.3%
20163,214−4.5%
[22][23]

MediaEdit

  • The Reporter, community newspaper

Notable peopleEdit

  • Lynn Coady is an author. Her best selling novels include Strange Heaven, Play the Monster Blind, Saints of Big Harbour, the Giller Prize nominated Antagonist (2011) and the Giller Prize Winning Hellgoing (2013).
  • Mark Day, a film and television actor now living in Toronto and Los Angeles.
  • Henry Embree, noted 19th-century boatbuilder
  • Aaron Johnson, an NHL draft pick now playing with the AHL's Stockton Heat.
  • Billy Joe MacLean, former mayor, provincial cabinet minister
  • Henry Nicholas Paint (1830–1921), member of Parliament for Richmond County, merchant and land owner. His family (settling from Guernsey) received land grants at Belle Vue on the Strait of Canso in 1817 and at Point Tupper in 1863, and did much to develop the local communities in the area.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chisholm-Beaton sworn in as Port Hawkesbury mayor". 101.5 FM The Hawk. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Nova Scotia)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  3. ^ https://archive.org/details/navalchronologyo01schoiala/page/258?q=%22governor+cornwallis%22
  4. ^ "Place-names of the Province of Nova Scotia". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  5. ^ "Town of Port Hawkesbury - Mayor and Council". www.townofporthawkesbury.ca. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  6. ^ Shipping in Canada 2006 (Catalogue no. 54-205-X) (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2009. pp. 26, 60. ISSN 1480-8773.
  7. ^ Shipping in Canada 2011 (Catalogue no. 54-205-X) (PDF). Statistics Canada. November 2012. pp. 28, 58. ISSN 1480-8773.
  8. ^ Mac Mackay, "The Announcement", Tugfax, July 23, 2010
  9. ^ "Plant Line Ocean Trips". The Independent. Jul 6, 1914. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  10. ^ "PORT HAWKESBURY – CAPE BRETON". Cape Breton News. 2010-09-06. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  11. ^ "Nova Scotia paper mill calls back employees, reaches deal to reopen this week". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  12. ^ "Port Hawkesbury Paper says order book full six years after reopening | Cape Breton Post". www.capebretonpost.com. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  13. ^ "Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census – Census subdivision of Cape Breton, RGM – Nova Scotia"
  14. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1912". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1975". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  16. ^ "Port Hawkesbury A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  17. ^ "Port Hastings". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Eddy Point". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  19. ^ "Port Hawkesbury". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  20. ^ "Port Hawkesbury Airport". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Nova Scotia)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  22. ^ Census 1956-1961
  23. ^ "I:\ecstats\Agency\BRIAN\census2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2010-02-05.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Climate data was recorded at Port Hastings from October 1885 to June 1913 and again from June 1959 to September 1989, at Port Hawkesbury Airport from December 1985 to August 2004, at Port Hawkesbury from January 2006 to May 2009 and at Port Hawkesbury Airport from June 2010 to present.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit