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Port Augusta is a small city in South Australia. Formerly a seaport, it is now a road traffic and railway junction city mainly located on the east coast of the Spencer Gulf immediately south of the gulf's head and about 322 kilometres (200 mi) north of the state capital, Adelaide. The suburb of Port Augusta West is located on the west side of the gulf on the Eyre Peninsula. Other major industries included, up until the mid-2010s, electricity generation. At June 2018, the estimated urban population was 13,799, having declined at an average annual rate of -0.53% over the preceding five years.
View across Spencer Gulf to Mount Brown
|LGA(s)||City of Port Augusta|
The city consists of an urban area extending along the Augusta and Eyre Highways from the coastal plain on the west side of the Flinders Ranges in the east across Spencer Gulf to Eyre Peninsula in the west. The urban area consists of the suburbs, from east to west, of Port Augusta and Davenport (on the eastern side of Spencer Gulf), and Port Augusta West on the Eyre Peninsula.
It is a natural harbour, which was proclaimed on 24 May 1852 by Alexander Elder (brother of Thomas Elder) and John Grainger, having discovered it while aboard the Government schooner Yatala, captained by Edward Dowsett. The port was named after Augusta Sophia, Lady Young, the wife of the Governor of South Australia, Sir Henry Edward Fox Young. Lady Young was the daughter of Charles Marryat Snr., who had been a slaveholder in the British West Indies. Her brother was the Anglican minister Dean of Adelaide Charles Marryat.
Flora and faunaEdit
According to the 2016 Census, the population of the Port Augusta census area was 12,896 people, making it the third largest urban area after Whyalla and Port Lincoln on the Eyre Peninsula. 49.3% of the population were female, 83.7% are Australian born and 19.2% were Aboriginal.
The most popular industries for employment were Technicians and Trades Workers (16%), Community and Personal Service Workers (15.4%) and Clerical and Administrative Workers (13.8%), while the unemployment rate is approximately 7%. The median weekly household income is A$789 or more per week, compared with $924 in Adelaide. 17.4% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while a higher 26.2% identify with no religion at all.
Spencer Gulf is a natural barrier to land transport, so Port Augusta has naturally become the "crossroads of Australia". It is at the junction of major road and rail links.
Port Augusta is the eastern end of the Eyre Highway to Perth. It is the northern end of the Augusta Highway to Adelaide. It is the southern end of the Stuart Highway to Darwin. All traffic across southern Australia passes through Port Augusta and over the Joy Baluch AM Bridge across the top of Spencer Gulf.
In 1878, the town became the southern terminus of a proposed North South transcontinental line, headed for Darwin 2,500 km (1,600 mi) away. This 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge railway was later taken over by the Commonwealth in 1910 and later renamed the Central Australia Railway. In 1929, it was extended to its last terminus at Alice Springs.
Between 1913 and 1917, a 2,000 km (1,200 mi) long east–west transcontinental railway (the Trans-Australian Railway) was built from Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. This was built to standard gauge as part of a long term plan to harmonise gauges between the mainland states, causing a break-of-gauge at Port Augusta until the standard gauge track was extended to Port Pirie in 1937.
The standard gauge Adelaide-Darwin railway was finally completed in 2003. Port Augusta is a stop on the Indian Pacific transcontinental train service on the Sydney–Perth railway and on The Ghan service between Adelaide, Alice Springs and Darwin. One service a week for each train in each direction serve the station.
Port Augusta has a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh); however, some authors define it as semi-arid steppe climate (BSk). In terms of vegetation the same is given as desert, although counterintuitively the city maintains with governmental aid with some plants adapted to aridity. Considered desert also by the city hall. Summers are very hot and dry, while winters are damp with generally mild days and cool nights. A record high temperature of 49.5 °C was recorded on 24 January 2019.
|Climate data for Port Augusta Airport, Port Augusta West|
|Record high °C (°F)||49.5
|Average high °C (°F)||34.4
|Average low °C (°F)||19.6
|Record low °C (°F)||11.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.8
|Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Source 2: Bureau of Meteorology|
Electricity was generated at the Playford B (240 MW) and Northern power stations (520 MW) from brown coal mined at Leigh Creek, 250 km to the north. The only coal-fired electricity generating plants in South Australia, in 2009 they produced 33% of the state's electricity, but over 50% of the state's CO2 emissions from electricity generation.
Playford B has not been operational since 2012. In October 2015, Alinta Energy announced the permanent closure of both Northern and Playford B in early 2016, following which the Northern Power Station went offline on 9 May 2016.
In 2016, a local community group was lobbying for assistance to replace the coal-fired plants with a solar thermal power station. The premier of South Australia, Jay Weatherill announced on 14 August 2017 that construction would commence in 2018 and was expected to be completed in 2020. The Aurora Solar Thermal Power Project is expected to cost A$650M to build, including a A$110M loan from the Federal Government, and deliver 150MW of electricity. SolarReserve has a contract to supply all of the electricity required by the state government's offices from this power project.
Separately, Sundrop Farms has a combined solar power tower, greenhouse and desalination plant which is used to produce tomatoes near the old power station site. It opened in October 2016 and produces 39MW of thermal energy from over 23 000 mirrors and a 127 metres (417 ft) tower, used for heating, electricity, and desalination to irrigate tomatoes in greenhouses. Sundrop has a 10-year contract to supply Coles Supermarkets with at least 15,000 tonnes of truss tomatoes per year.
Port Augusta has been able to capitalise on the growing eco-tourism industry due to its proximity to the Flinders Ranges. The Pichi Richi Railway is a major drawcard, connecting Port Augusta to Quorn via the Pichi Richi Pass.
Within Port Augusta is the City of Port Augusta's Wadlata Outback Centre, providing tourists with an introduction to life in the Australian outback. The centre recorded over 500,000 visitors in 2006. North of town, on the Stuart Highway, are the Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden, a unique and award-winning garden, opened in 1996, which "showcases a diverse collection of arid zone habitats in a picturesque setting of more than 250 hectares". The gardens have a cafe/restaurant with views across the saltbush plains to the escarpment of the Flinders Ranges. The PACC annual report shows more than 100,000 people visited the gardens in 2006.
Southwest of town is the El-Alamein army base.
Proposed multi-commodity portEdit
In February 2019, the site of the former Playford power stations was sold by Alinta Energy to Cu-River Mining as a prospective port development site. The company intends to construct a transshipment facility suitable for the export of iron ore, wheat and other commodities.
The major publication of the town is The Transcontinental, a weekly newspaper that was first issued in October 1914, and whose office is located on Commercial Road. In 1971, a brief experiment, known as the Northern Observer (7 July – 30 August 1971), occurred when The Transcontinental and The Recorder from Port Pirie were published under a combined title in Port Pirie.
Historically, the town also published the Dispatch (1877–1916), which, as was common at the time, evolved through a series of name changes: Port Augusta Dispatch (18 August 1877 – 6 August 1880); Port Augusta Dispatch and Flinders' Advertiser (13 August 1880 – 17 October 1884); Port Augusta Dispatch (20 October 1884 – 16 March 1885); and, Port Augusta Dispatch, Newcastle and Flinders Chronicle (18 March 1885 – 21 April 1916). For a short period, due to the short-lived discovery of gold at Teetulpa, a sister publication Teetulpa News and Golden Age (1886–1887) was also printed by the Dispatch.
Another publication. the Port Augusta and Stirling Illustrated News (1901) was also printed briefly in the town by James Taylor, but was stopped so he could focus on his printing business.
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There are six public primary schools:
- Augusta Park Primary School,
- Carlton R-9 School,
- Flinders View Primary School,
- Port Augusta West Primary School,
- Stirling North Primary School and
- Willsden Primary school.
There is one secondary school, Port Augusta Secondary School, located on Stirling Road. There is one private school for reception to year 12 students called Caritas College.
Port Augusta also has:
- Port Augusta Special School,
- OAC:Port Augusta School of the Air
- The University of Adelaide and
- TAFE (tertiary technical college), Port Augusta Campus.
State and federalEdit
|2006 state election|
|2007 federal election|
Port Augusta is part of the state electoral district of Stuart which has been held since 2010 by Liberal MP Dan van Holst Pellekaan. The seat is held by a margin of 1%. In federal politics, the city is part of the division of Grey, and has been represented by Liberal MP Rowan Ramsey since 2007. Grey is held with a margin of 8.86% and is considered safe-liberal. The results shown are from the largest polling station in Port Augusta – which is located at Port Augusta TAFE college.
Port Augusta is in the City of Port Augusta local government area. The City of Port Augusta is believed to have had the longest serving mayor in Australia, Joy Baluch, who died after 30 years of service on 14 May 2013. The council is based at the Port Augusta Civic Centre; prior to 1983, it operated out of the now-disused Port Augusta Town Hall.
Port Augusta has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- Beauchamp Lane: Port Augusta Waterworks
- Beauchamp Lane: Beatton Memorial Drinking Fountain
- Beauchamp Lane: Gladstone Square Bandstand
- 9 Church Street: St Augustine's Anglican Church, Port Augusta
- Commercial Road: Old Port Augusta railway station
- 52 Commercial Road: Port Augusta Institute
- 54 Commercial Road: Port Augusta Town Hall
- 34 Flinders Terrace: Port Augusta School of the Air
- 1 Jervois Street: Port Augusta Courthouse
- Stirling Street: Port Augusta railway station
- off Tassie Street: Port Augusta Wharf
- 12 Tassie Street: Bank of South Australia, Port Augusta
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- Australia Post – Postcode: Port Augusta, SA (26 June 2008)
- "District of Stuart Background Profile". ELECTORAL COMMISSION SA. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
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- Cat. No. 3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics. Accessed 10 August 2012.
- Boating Industry Association of South Australia (BIA); South Australia. Department for Environment and Heritage (2005), South Australia's waters an atlas & guide, Boating Industry Association of South Australia, p. 209, ISBN 978-1-86254-680-6
- "Port Augusta Structure Plan: A section of the Far North Region Plan" (PDF). Department of Planning and Local Government. 2010. p. 8. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "SA Memory: Port Augusta". State Library of South Australia. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Coventry, CJ (2019). "Links in the Chain: British slavery, Victoria and South Australia". Before/Now. 1 (1). doi:10.17613/d8ht-p058.
- "Charles Marryat". Legacies of British Slave-ownership database. University College London. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "BABY TURTLE CAUGHT AT PORT AUGUSTA". Port Lincoln Times (SA : 1927 - 1954). 19 November 1942. p. 4. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "PORT AUGUSTA, June 6". South Australian Chronicle and Weekly Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1868 - 1881). 13 June 1868. p. 7. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "PORT AUGUSTA, FEBRUARY 4". South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889). 12 February 1870. p. 3. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "PORT AUGUSTA, SEP. 15". Bunyip (Gawler, SA : 1863 - 1954). 17 September 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
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- "Attractions". Port Augusta City Council. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Specht, R. L.; Rundel, P. W.; Westman, W. E.; Catling, P. C.; Majer, J. D.; Greenslade, P. (6 December 2012). Mediterranean-type Ecosystems: A data source book. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 98. ISBN 978-94-009-3099-5.
- "Port Augusta climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Port Augusta weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Rickard, Simon (2011). The New Ornamental Garden. Csiro Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-643-09596-0.
- "Port Augusta, South Australia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Bush garden battling a crippling cash drought for desert garden". www.adelaidenow.com.au. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "NOTICE OF AUSTRALIAN ARID LANDS BOTANIC GARDEN ADVISORY COMMITTEE MEETING" (PDF).
- Adelaide now hottest capital city on record as temperatures soar throughout SA ABC News, 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Port Augusta Aero". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "Port Augusta, South Australia December 2019 Daily Weather Observations". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- The Climate Group Greenhouse Indicator Series: Electricity Generation Report 2009
- SA's coal era ends, but what's next? InDaily, 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- End of an era: final day of coal-fired power generation in Port Augusta ABC News, 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Michael Slezak (23 March 2016). "Port Augusta 'busting a gut' to reinvent itself as a solar city when coal-fired power is switched off". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Solar thermal power plant announced for Port Augusta 'biggest of its kind in the world'". ABC News. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Fairfax Regional Media (24 March 2016). "Solar tower reaches new heights". The Transcontinental. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Staight, Kerry (2 October 2016). "Sundrop Farms pioneering solar-powered greenhouse to grow food without fresh water". Landline. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "About the Garden". Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden. Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden. 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Candice Prosser (1 February 2019). "Shipping to return to Port Augusta with new port project". ABC News. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- Laube, Anthony. "LibGuides: SA Newspapers: M-N". guides.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
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- Laube, Anthony. "LibGuides: SA Newspapers: O-R". guides.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
- Port Augusta West Polling Booth Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, District of Stuart, House of Assembly Division First Preferences, 2006 State Election. Retrieved on 26 June 2008.
- Port Augusta East Polling Booth, Division of Grey, House of Representatives Division First Preferences, 2007 Federal Election. Retrieved on 26 June 2008.
- Outspoken Port Augusta Mayor Joy Baluch dies after breast cancer battle adelaidenow (News Ltd.) Accessed 17 May 2013.
- "Former Port Augusta Waterworks workshop, storeroom, stables and courtyard". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Beatton Memorial Drinking Fountain, Gladstone Square". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Gladstone Square Bandstand". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "St Augustine's Anglican Church". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Curdnatta Art Gallery (former first Port Augusta Railway Station)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Port Augusta Institute". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Port Augusta Town Hall". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Former Port Augusta School of the Air". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Port Augusta Courthouse". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Second Port Augusta Railway Station". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Port Augusta Wharf". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Seaview House (former Bank of South Australia Port Augusta Branch)". South Australian Heritage Register. Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 11 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "America's Best, Britain's Finest: A Survey of Mixed Movies" – Google Books, John Howard Reid, pub. Lulu.com, March 2006. ISBN 9781411678774, p. 241[self-published source]
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