Polyporus alveolaris

Polyporus alveolaris, commonly known as the hexagonal-pored polypore,[3] is a species of fungus in the genus Polyporus. It causes a white rot of dead hardwoods. Found on sticks and decaying logs, its distinguishing features are its yellowish to orange scaly cap, and the hexagonal or diamond-shaped pores. It is widely distributed in North America, and also found in Asia, Australia, and Europe.

Polyporus alveolaris
Polyporus alveolaris.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Polyporaceae
Genus: Polyporus
Species:
P. alveolaris
Binomial name
Polyporus alveolaris
Synonyms[2]
List
  • Merulius alveolaris DC. (1815)
  • Boletus mori (Pollini) Pollini (1816)
  • Hexagonia mori Pollini (1816)
  • Cantharellus alveolaris (DC.) Fr. (1821)
  • Daedalea broussonetiae Cappelli (1821)
  • Polyporus mori (Pollini) Fr. (1821)
  • Favolus extratropicus Fr. (1825)
  • Favolus mori (Pollini) Fr. (1825)
  • Favolus canadensis Klotzsch (1832)
  • Favolus europaeus Fr. (1838)
  • Favolus ohioensis Mont. (1856)
  • Polyporus favoloides Doass. & Pat. (1880)
  • Favolus alveolaris (DC.) Quél. (1883)
  • Favolus striatulus Ellis & Everh. (1897)
  • Hexagonia alveolaris (DC.) Murrill (1904)
  • Hexagonia micropora Murrill (1904)
  • Favolus microporus (Murrill) Sacc. & D.Sacc. (1905)
  • Hexagonia striatula (Ellis & Everh.) Murrill (1907)
  • Favolus kauffmanii Lloyd (1916)
  • Favolus whetstonei Lloyd (1916)
  • Favolus peponinus Lloyd (1917)
  • Polyporellus alveolaris (DC.) Pilát (1936)
  • Polyporus tenuiparies Laferr. & Gilb. (1990)
Polyporus alveolaris
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
pores on hymenium
cap is offset
hymenium is decurrent
stipe is bare
spore print is white
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: edible or inedible

TaxonomyEdit

The first scientific description of the fungus was published in 1815 by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, under the name Merulius alveolaris.[4] A few years later in 1821 it was sanctioned by Elias Magnus Fries as Cantharellus alveolaris. It was transferred to the genus Polyporus in a 1941 publication by Appollinaris Semenovich Bondartsev and Rolf Singer.[1]

The genus name is derived from the Greek meaning "many pores", while the specific epithet alveolaris means "with small pits or hollows".[5]

DescriptionEdit

 
The hexagonal pores are a characteristic feature

The fruit bodies of P. alveolaris are 1–10 cm (0.4–3.9 in) in diameter, rounded to kidney- or fan-shaped. Fruit bodies sometimes have stems, but they are also found attached directly to the growing surface. The cap surface is dry, covered with silk-like fibrils, and is an orange-yellow or reddish-orange color, which weathers to cream to white. The context is thin (2 mm), tough, and white. Tubes are radially elongated, with the pore walls breaking down in age. The pores are large—compared to other species in this genus—typically 0.5–3 mm wide, angular (diamond-shaped) or hexagonal; the pore surface is a white to buff color. The stipe, if present, is 0.5–2 cm long  by  1.5–5 mm thick, placed either laterally or centrally, and has a white to tan color. The pores extend decurrently on the stipe. The spore deposit is white.

Microscopic featuresEdit

Spores are narrowly elliptical and smooth, hyaline, with dimensions of 11–14.5  × 4–5 μm. The basidia are club-shaped and four-spored, with dimensions of 28–42 × 7–9 μm.[6]

Similar speciesEdit

Polyporus craterellus bears a resemblance to P. alveolaris, but the former species has a more prominent stalk and does not have the reddish-orange colors observed in the latter.[7]

EdibilityEdit

This mushroom is edible when young.[8] It has been described as "edible but tough,"[9] with toughness increasing with age, and not having "all that distinctive of a flavor."[10] Another reference lists the species as inedible.[11]

Habitat and distributionEdit

Polyporus alveolaris is found growing singly or grouped together on branches and twigs of hardwoods, commonly on shagbark hickory in the spring and early summer.[12] It has been reported growing on the dead hardwoods of genera Acer, Castanea, Cornus, Corylus, Crataegus, Erica, Fagus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Magnolia, Morus, Populus, Pyrus, Robinia, Quercus, Syringa, Tilia, and Ulmus.[13]

This species is widely distributed in North America,[5][12] and has also been collected in Australia,[14] China,[15] and Europe (Czechoslovakia,[16] Italy[17] and Portugal[18]).

Antifungal compoundsEdit

A polypeptide with antifungal properties has been isolated from the fresh fruit bodies of this species. Named alveolarin, it inhibits the growth of the species Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola.[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Bondartsev A, Singer R (1941). "Zur Systematik der Polyporaceae". Annales Mycologici (in German). 39: 43–65.
  2. ^ "Polyporus alveolaris (DC.) Bondartsev & Singer 1941". Mycoank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  3. ^ Embis G. "Polyporus alveolaris". Fungi on Wood. Messiah College. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  4. ^ De Candolle AP. (1815). Flore française. Vol 6, 3rd. ed (in French). p. 43.
  5. ^ a b Kuo M. "Polyporus alveolaris". MushroomExpert.Com. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  6. ^ "Polyporus alveolaris (DC.) Bondartsev & Singer 1941 - Encyclopedia of Life". Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  7. ^ Roody WC. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 362. ISBN 0-8131-9039-8.
  8. ^ Miller Jr., Orson K.; Miller, Hope H. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, CN: FalconGuides. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-7627-3109-1.
  9. ^ Emberger, Gary. "Neofavolus alveolaris". Messiah College Oakes Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Video: On Hexagonal-Pored Polypores". The Richest Fare. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  11. ^ Bessette, Alan E. (1997-09-01). Mushrooms of Northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0388-7.
  12. ^ a b Healy RA; Huffman DR.; Tiffany LH; Knaphaus G. (2008). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of the Midcontinental United States. Bur Oak Guide. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-58729-627-7.
  13. ^ Ryvarden L. (1993). European Polypores (Part 2 European Polypores). Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd. p. 559. ISBN 82-90724-12-8.
  14. ^ May TW, Milne J, Shingles S, Jones RH (2008). Fungi of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7.
  15. ^ Zhuang W. (2001). Higher Fungi of Tropical China. Cornell University: Mycotaxon Ltd. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-930845-13-1.
  16. ^ Kotlaba F, Pouzar Z (1957). "New or little known Polyporaceae in Czechoslovakia II". Česká Mykologie (in Czech). 11 (4): 214–24.
  17. ^ Govi G. (1970). "Italian Polyporacea. Part VIII". Monti e Boschi (in Italian). 21 (4): 45–54.
  18. ^ Melo I. (1978). "Buglossoporus pulvinus new record and Polyporus mori new record 2 species of Polyporaceae which are new for Portugal". Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana (in Portuguese). 52: 277–84.
  19. ^ Wang H, Ng TB, Liu Q (2004). "Alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom Polyporus alveolaris". Peptides. 25 (4): 693–96. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2004.01.026. PMID 15165727. S2CID 36727221.