Po Binasuor (died 1390), Ngo-ta Ngo-che, Cei Bunga, Chế Bồng Nga (Bunga is the Malay word for 'flower', and "Chế" is the Vietnamese transliteration of Cei, a Cham word that means "uncle" - and was, in the days of Champa, frequently used to refer to generals) ruled Champa from 1360–1390 CE. He was also known as The Red King in Vietnamese stories. He is differed from Po Binnasuar, the king of Panduranga from 1316-1361.

Po Binasuor
Raja-di-raja
King of Champa
Reignc. 1360–90
PredecessorMaha Sawa
SuccessorJaya Simhavarman VI
Born?
Vijaya, Champa
Died1390
Luộc River, Đại Việt
IssueChế Ma Nô Đà Nan
Chế Sơn Na
Unknown daughter
House13th dynasty

Po Binasuor was the last strong king of the kingdom of Champa.[1]

ReignEdit

 
Cham empire at its peak during the reign of Che Bong Nga in 1380s

Chế Bồng Nga apparently managed to unite the Cham lands under his rule and by 1361 was strong enough to attack Đại Việt from the sea. In 1372 he sent a letter to Hongwu Emperor of China warned that the Viet were about to attack his country, demanding the Ming for protection and war materiel.[2] His Cham forces sacked the Vietnamese capital city of Thăng Long (modern Hanoi) four times, once in 1371, twice on 1377 and on 1383. They set the city on fire, seizing women, jewels, and silks. All Vietnamese books held in the royal palace were lost.[3] This second attack followed the death of king Trần Duệ Tông after his failed assault on Vijaya.[4] In 1378 he married Prince Trần Húc, a Vietnamese royal captive, to his daughter and put the prince in charge of the Cham army advance into Nghe An.[5] Dai Viet court, due to lacking of a central control over manpower and resources, unable to reassert power in the south, where Po Binasuor recruited Vietnamese men from southern regions for his army.[6]

The Chams then forced the king of Đại Việt, Trần Phế Đế, to move the state's treasures and wealth to Mount Thienkien and the Kha-lang Caves in 1379.[7] Chế Bồng Nga continued to occupy the two southern Vietnamese provinces of Nghệ An and Thanh Hóa, though he was stopped by Hồ Quý Ly in 1380 and 1382. In 1390, Po Binasuor was finally stopped in another invasion of the capital, when his royal barge suffered a musketry salvo.[8]

Family and childrenEdit

King Chế Bồng Nga had only one Queen named Siti Zubaidah, belonged to the Kelantan clan. They had two princes and one princess. The two princes defected to the Vietnamese after general La Khai took the Cham crown.

LegacyEdit

The events of Chế Bồng Nga's reign spelled the end of the Trần dynasty in Đại Việt, which was revealed as weak and ineffective in the face of the Cham General.[9][10]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationEdit

  1. ^ Coedès 1968, pp. 237–238.
  2. ^ Whitmore 1985, p. 17.
  3. ^ Kiernan 2019, pp. 183–184.
  4. ^ Maspero 2002, pp. 92–94.
  5. ^ Whitmore 1985, p. 19.
  6. ^ Whitmore 1985, pp. 20–21.
  7. ^ Maspero 2002, p. 94.
  8. ^ Maspero 2002, pp. 107–109.
  9. ^ SarDesai 1988, p. 33-34.
  10. ^ Li 2018, p. 20-21.

BibliographyEdit

  • Aymonier, Etienne (1893). The History of Tchampa (the Cyamba of Marco Polo, Now Annam Or Cochin-China). Oriental University Institute. ISBN 978-1149974148.
  • Coedès, George (1968), Vella, Walter F. (ed.), The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, University of Hawaii Press., ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1
  • Hall, Daniel George Edward (1981), History of South East Asia, Macmillan Education, Limited, ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6
  • Kiernan, Ben (2019). Việt Nam: a history from earliest time to the present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190053796.
  • Li, Tana (2018). Nguyen Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-501-73257-7.
  • SarDesai, D. R. (1988). Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation. Long Beach Publications.
  • Maspero, Georges (2002). The Champa Kingdom. White Lotus Co., Ltd. ISBN 978-9747534993.
  • Miksic, John Norman; Yian, Go Geok (2016). Ancient Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-317-27903-4.
  • Miksic, John Norman; Yian, Go Geok (2016). Ancient Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-317-27903-4.
  • Whitmore, John K. (1985). Vietnam, Hồ Quý Ly, and the Ming (1371-1421). Yale Center for International and Area Studies.
  • Whitmore, John Kramer (2011), "The Last Great King of Classical Southeast Asia: Che Bong Nga and Fourteenth Century Champa", in Lockhart, Bruce; Trần, Kỳ Phương (eds.), The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, pp. 168–203, ISBN 978-9-971-69459-3
Preceded by
Maha Sawa 1342–1360
King of Champa
1360–1390
Succeeded by
Jaya Simhavarman V 1390–1400