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The Phragmoplastophyta (Lecointre & Guyander 2006) or Streptophytina (Lewis & McCourt 2004, incl. Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae and Mesotaeniaceae) are a proposed sister clade of the Klebsormidiaceae, with which they form the Streptophyte/Charophyte clade.[1][2][3][4][5] The Phragmoplastophyta consist of the Charophycaea and another unnamed clade which contains the Coleochaetophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesotaeniaceae, and Embryophytes (land plants). It is an important step in the emergence of land plants within the green algae.

Phragmoplastophyta
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Superdivision: Charophyta
Clade: Phragmoplastophyta
Lecointre & Guyander 2006
Subclades

The mitosis of Phragmoplastophyta takes place via a phragmoplast.

Another synapomorphy of this clade is the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils by a complex of octameric celluloses synthetases. This complex crosses the plasma membrane and polymerizes molecules from the cytoplasm into cellulose microfibrils, which, together with each other, form fibrils, necessary in the formation of the wall. The Phragmoplastophyte wall is also formed of phenolic compounds.

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

Viridiplantae/

Mesostigmatophyceae

Spirotaenia

Chlorokybophyceae

Chlorophyta

Streptophyta/

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae

Coleochaetophyceae

Zygnematophyceae

Mesotaeniaceae

Embryophytes (land plants)

Charophyta
green algae

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lecointre, Guillaume; Guyader, Hervé Le (2006). The Tree of Life: A Phylogenetic Classification. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674021839. 
  2. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (2012-09-01). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. ISSN 1550-7408. PMC 3483872 . 
  3. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL archives-ouvertes: 1–462 
  4. ^ "Streptophyta - NCBI Taxonomy - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2017-09-10. 
  5. ^ Lecointre, Guillaume; Guyader, Hervé Le (2006). The Tree of Life: A Phylogenetic Classification. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674021839. 
  6. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Smith, David R.; Moreau, Hervé; Herron, Matthew D.; Verbruggen, Heroen; Delwiche, Charles F.; De Clerck, Olivier (2012). "Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  7. ^ Marin, Birger (2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or Independent Class? Phylogeny and Classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) Revealed by Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of Complete Nuclear and Plastid-encoded rRNA Operons". Protist. 163: 778–805. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. PMID 22192529. 
  8. ^ Laurin-Lemay, Simon; Brinkmann, Henner; Philippe, Hervé (2012). "Origin of land plants revisited in the light of sequence contamination and missing data". Current Biology. 22: R593–R594. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.013. PMID 22877776. 
  9. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique; DePriest, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Karol, Kenneth G.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Zechman, Frederick W. (2016-05-09). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6: 25367. doi:10.1038/srep25367. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4860620 . PMID 27157793. 
  10. ^ Cook, Martha E.; Graham, Linda E. (2017). Archibald, John M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Slamovits, Claudio H., eds. Handbook of the Protists. Springer International Publishing. pp. 185–204. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28149-0_36. ISBN 9783319281476. 
  11. ^ Lewis, Louise A.; Richard M. McCourt (2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants" (abstract). American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308. 
  12. ^ Ruhfel, Brad R.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Burleigh, J. Gordon (2014-02-17). "From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. ISSN 1471-2148. 
  13. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (2012-09-01). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. ISSN 1550-7408. PMC 3483872 . 
  14. ^ Umen, James G. (2014-11-01). "Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (11): a016170. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016170. ISSN 1943-0264. PMID 25324214. 
  15. ^ de Vries, Jan; Archibald, John M.; Gould, Sven B. (2017-02-01). "The Carboxy Terminus of YCF1 Contains a Motif Conserved throughout >500 Myr of Streptophyte Evolution". Genome Biology and Evolution. 9 (2): 473–479. doi:10.1093/gbe/evx013. 
  16. ^ Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Raven, John A.; Pisani, Davide; Knoll, Andrew H. (2017-09-12). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. 
  17. ^ Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Wong, Gane K.-S.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. ISSN 0002-9122.