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Viridiplantae (literally "green plants")[5] are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.[6][7][8] Green algae traditionally excludes the land plants, rendering them a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[9][10][11][12][13] They have cells with cellulose in their cell walls, and primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b and lack phycobilins. More than 350,000 species of Viridiplantae exist.[14]

Viridiplantae
Taiwan 2009 East Coast ShihTiPing Giant Stone Steps Algae FRD 6581.jpg
An assortment of thallophyte Viridiplantae in a rock pool, Taiwan
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Cavalier-Smith, 1981
Subgroups
Synonyms
  • Plantae Copeland, 1938, 1956[1][2]
  • Euchlorophyta Whittaker, 1969[3]
  • Chlorophyta sensu van den Hoek & Jahns, 1978[4]
  • Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004
  • Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997
  • Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005
  • Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981[5]
  • Phyta Barkley 1939 emed. Holt & Uidica 2007
  • Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836
  • Cormobionta Rothmaler, 1948
  • Euplanta Barkley, 1949
  • Telomobionta Takhtajan, 1964
  • Embryobionta Cronquist et al., 1966
  • Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969

In some classification systems, the group has been treated as a kingdom,[15] under various names, e.g. Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, or simply Plantae, the latter expanding the traditional plant kingdom to include the green algae. Adl et al., who produced a classification for all eukaryotes in 2005, introduced the name Chloroplastida for this group, reflecting the group having primary chloroplasts with green chlorophyll. They rejected the name Viridiplantae on the grounds that some of the species are not plants, as understood traditionally.[16] The Viridiplantae are made up of two clades: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta as well as the basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae.[17][18] Together with Rhodophyta and glaucophytes, Viridiplantae are thought to belong to a larger clade called Archaeplastida or Primoplantae.

A taxonomic evaluation of eukaryotes based on myosin distribution showed the Viridiplantae lost class-I myosins.[19]

Phylogeny and classificationEdit

Leliaert et al. 2012Edit

Simplified phylogeny of the Viridiplantae, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[20]

  • Viridiplantae
  • core chlorophytes

Cladogram

Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.[22][20][21][23][11][24][25][18][26]

Viridiplantae/

Mesostigmatophyceae

Spirotaenia

Chlorokybophyceae

Chlorophyta
Tetraphytina
Chlorophytina

Ulvophyceae

Chlorophyceae

Trebouxiophyceae

Chlorodendrophyceae

Pedinophyceae

Prasinophytes Clade VIIA

Prasinophytes Clade VIIC

Pycnococcaceae

Nephroselmidophyceae

Mamiellophyceae

Pyramimonadales

Palmophyllophyceae

Palmophyllales

Prasinococcales

Streptophyta/

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae

Mesotaeniaceae

Zygnematophyceae

Embryophytes (land plants)

Coleochaetophyceae

Charophyta
Green Algae

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Copeland HF (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quart. Rev. Biol. 13: 383–420. 
  2. ^ Copeland HF (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. p. 6. 
  3. ^ Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms" (PDF). Science. 163 (3863): 150–60. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760. 
  4. ^ van den Hoek C, Jahns HM (1978). Einführung in die Phykologie (in German). Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. 
  5. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith T (1981). "Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?". Bio Systems. 14 (3-4): 461–81. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2. PMID 7337818. 
  6. ^ Cocquyt E, Verbruggen H, Leliaert F, Zechman FW, Sabbe K, De Clerck O (February 2009). "Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-39. PMC 2652445 . PMID 19216746. 
  7. ^ Becker B (2007). "Function and evolution of the vacuolar compartment in green algae and land plants (Viridiplantae)". International Review of Cytology. International Review of Cytology. 264: 1–24. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(07)64001-7. ISBN 9780123742636. PMID 17964920. 
  8. ^ Kim E, Graham LE (July 2008). Redfield RJ, ed. "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata". PLOS One. 3 (7): e2621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002621. PMC 2440802 . PMID 18612431. 
  9. ^ Delwiche CF, Timme RE (June 2011). "Plants". Current Biology. 21 (11): R417–22. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.04.021. PMID 21640897. 
  10. ^ "Charophycean Green Algae Home Page". www.life.umd.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-24. 
  11. ^ a b Ruhfel BR, Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Burleigh JG (February 2014). "From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. PMID 24533922. 
  12. ^ Delwiche CF, Cooper ED (October 2015). "The Evolutionary Origin of a Terrestrial Flora". Current Biology. 25 (19): R899–910. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.029. PMID 26439353. 
  13. ^ Parfrey LW, Lahr DJ, Knoll AH, Katz LA (August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185 . PMID 21810989. 
  14. ^ Smith SA, Beaulieu JM, Donoghue MJ (February 2009). "Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-37. PMC 2645364 . PMID 19210768. 
  15. ^ "Viridiplantae". Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  16. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, et al. (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873. 
  17. ^ Simon A, Glöckner G, Felder M, Melkonian M, Becker B (February 2006). "EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta): implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae)". BMC Plant Biology. 6: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-6-2. PMC 1413533 . PMID 16476162. 
  18. ^ a b Sánchez-Baracaldo P, Raven JA, Pisani D, Knoll AH (September 2017). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. PMID 28808007. 
  19. ^ Odronitz F, Kollmar M (2007). "Drawing the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 manually annotated myosins from 328 species". Genome Biology. 8 (9): R196. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r196. PMC 2375034 . PMID 17877792. 
  20. ^ a b Leliaert F, Smith DR, Moreau H, Herron MD, Verbruggen H, Delwiche CF, De Clerck O (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  21. ^ a b Marin B (September 2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or independent class? Phylogeny and classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) revealed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of complete nuclear and plastid-encoded rRNA operons". Protist. 163 (5): 778–805. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. PMID 22192529. 
  22. ^ Lewis LA, McCourt RM (October 2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–56. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308. 
  23. ^ Laurin-Lemay S, Brinkmann H, Philippe H (August 2012). "Origin of land plants revisited in the light of sequence contamination and missing data". Current Biology. 22 (15): R593–4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.013. PMID 22877776. 
  24. ^ Leliaert F, Tronholm A, Lemieux C, Turmel M, DePriest MS, Bhattacharya D, Karol KG, Fredericq S, Zechman FW, Lopez-Bautista JM (May 2016). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6: 25367. doi:10.1038/srep25367. PMC 4860620 . PMID 27157793. 
  25. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Lane CE, Lukeš J, Bass D, Bowser SS, Brown MW, Burki F, Dunthorn M, Hampl V, Heiss A, Hoppenrath M, Lara E, Le Gall L, Lynn DH, McManus H, Mitchell EA, Mozley-Stanridge SE, Parfrey LW, Pawlowski J, Rueckert S, Shadwick L, Shadwick L, Schoch CL, Smirnov A, Spiegel FW (September 2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–93. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872 . PMID 23020233. 
  26. ^ Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Wong GK, Ruhfel BR, Soltis DE (March 2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. PMID 29603143.