Philip, Duke of Parma

  (Redirected from Phillip of Bourbon, Duke of Parma)

Philip (Spanish: Felipe, Italian: Filippo; 15 March 1720 – 18 July 1765) was Duke of Parma from 18 October 1748 until his death in 1765. He was born a Spanish infante, being the second son of King Philip V and Elisabeth Farnese. The Duchy of Parma had been ruled by the House of Farnese, Queen Elisabeth's family. Philip founded the House of Bourbon-Parma, a cadet line of the House of Bourbon. He was a first cousin and son-in-law of the French king Louis XV.

Philip
Felipe de Parma.jpg
Portrait by Laurent Pécheux, c. 1765
Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla
Reign18 October 1748 – 18 July 1765
PredecessorMaria Theresa (Parma and Piacenza)
Giuseppe Maria Gonzaga (Guastalla)
SuccessorFerdinand
Born(1720-03-15)15 March 1720
Royal Alcazar, Madrid, Spain
Died18 July 1765(1765-07-18) (aged 45)
Alessandria, Italy
Spouse
(m. 1739; died 1759)
Issue
Names
Spanish: Felipe de Borbón y Farnesio
Italian: Filippo di Borbone
HouseBourbon-Parma (founder)
FatherPhilip V of Spain
MotherElisabeth Farnese
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignaturePhilip's signature

LifeEdit

Born at the Royal Alcazar in Madrid as Felipe de Borbón y Farnesio, he was the third child and second son of Philip V of Spain and his wife, Elisabeth Farnese.

He was raised in Madrid and as a child showed more interest in art than in politics. He was also the 12th Count of Chinchón and Grandee of Spain First Class with a coat of arms of Bourbon after the alienation with royal authorization in 1738 of the 11th Count of Chinchón, Don Jose Sforza-Cesarini, Duke of Canzano, a title he later ceded to his brother Louis in 1754.

 
Portrait of the Duke of Parma as a child, by Jean Ranc, c. 1725-32

His mother came from the family of Farnese, which had ruled the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla for many generations. The duchy had been ruled between 1731 and 1736 by his elder brother Charles, but was exchanged with Austria for The Two Sicilies after the War of Polish Succession. Twelve years later, in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Austria lost the duchy and Philip became the new duke, founding the House of Bourbon-Parma.

As part of the Second Treaty of Versailles (1757) between Austria and France, it was intended that Philip would become king of the Southern Netherlands in a deal that would see French troops occupy key positions in the country – however this arrangement was repudiated by the subsequent Third Treaty of Versailles and Philip continued in Parma.

The Duchy of Parma was ruined by many years of warfare, and in 1759 Philip named the able Frenchman Guillaume du Tillot as his minister to restore the economy. Philip was an enlightened ruler who stimulated education and philosophy, attracting personalities like Étienne Bonnot de Condillac and Alexandre Deleyre.

MarriageEdit

 
Portrait of the Duke of Parma with his family, by Giuseppe Baldrighi, c. 1757

Philip married his first cousin once removed Princess Louise Élisabeth of France in Alcalá de Henares, Spain on 25 October 1739. They had the following children:

Their marriage was an unhappy one, and Louise Elisabeth died of smallpox at the age of 32 in 1759. Philip died unexpectedly on 18 July 1765 in Alessandria, Italy, after having accompanied his daughter Maria Luisa on her way to Genoa, where she sailed for Spain to marry Infante Charles. Through Philip's daughter Maria Luisa, he is an ancestor of the Bourbons of Spain, the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, and the House of Orléans.

HonoursEdit

AncestorsEdit

HeraldryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 8.
  2. ^ Balechou, Jean Joseph. "Don Philippe, Infant d'Espagne" (in Portuguese). National Library of Portugal. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  3. ^ "Parma, Fernando I de Borbón, Duque de (1751-1802)". Ex-Libris Database (in Spanish). Royal Library of Spain. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
Philip, Duke of Parma
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 15 March 1720 Died: 18 July 1765
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maria Theresa (Parma and Piacenza)
Giuseppe Maria Gonzaga (Guastalla)
Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla
1748–1765
Succeeded by
Spanish nobility
Preceded by Count of Chinchón
1738–1754
Succeeded by
Preceded by Duke of Canzano
1748–1765
Succeeded by