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Pheidologeton diversus

Pheidologeton diversus, also known as Carebara diversa (common name East Indian harvesting ant),[1][3] is a species of marauder ant widely distributed throughout Asia.[2][4][5]

Pheidologeton diversus
Carebara diversa
GRF PheidologetonDiversus 01.jpg
P. diversus attacking a mealworm
Scientific classification
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P. diversus
Binomial name
Pheidologeton diversus / Carebara diversa[1]
(Jerdon, 1851)
Synonyms
  • Ocodoma diversa[2]
  • Myrmica polita Smith, F. 1860, 1860
  • Pheidole megacephala Smith, F., 1860
  • Pheidole megacephalotes Dalla Torre, 1892
  • Pheidole militaris Smith, F., 1860
  • Pheidole ocellifera Smith, F., 1858
  • Pheidole pabulator Smith, F., 1860

DescriptionEdit

 
Allometric variation of the East Indian Harvesting Ant

P. diversus is a eusocial insect and individuals have continuous allometric variation in size and morphology to facilitate task allocation and partitioning of work. Minor workers are between 1.3 and 2.5 mm in length, but major workers are much larger. Between the smallest minor and largest major workers there are many intermediate forms. The largest workers can have heads approximately 10 times as large as those of their smallest counterparts. The dry weight of a large major worker can be approximately 500 times as heavy of that of its smallest counterpart. These size-related morphological differences correspond with their division of labor. For example, small, young, minor workers specialize in caring for the larvae but extend their activities as they grow older.[2]

Minor workers have yellowish brown to reddish brown bodies. Their mandibles each have five "teeth" and their antennal scapes are short and do not exceed the posterior margin of the head. Minor workers have rectangular heads with weakly convex posterior margins in full face view[2]

Major workers have reddish brown to blackish brown bodies. Their heads are proportionately larger and almost square with convex posterior margin in frontal view. Mandibles of major workers are large and triangular, with an acute apical "tooth". Their masticatory margins lack distinct "teeth". Their eyes are relatively small and their antennal scapes are half as long as their heads.[2]

BehaviorEdit

P. diversus forms large colonies which are often found in soil or under rocks. This species preys on small animals such as insects and also collects nectivorous materials. These ants regularly form long columns for foraging and sometimes roof these trails with arcades constructed of soil particles.[2] They use pheromone trails to maintain these lines and if these trails are obstructed it causes chaos and crowding. One study showed that 98% of individuals failed to cross an obstacle in the foraging path and that eventually the column creates a detour around such obstructions.[6]

Differences between Pheidologeton species and real army antsEdit

Due to their raids, Pheidologeton species are often compared to army ants, but there are some important differences:

  • Pheidologeton species have permanent nests, while real army ants have only temporary nests (Dorylus) or form a bivouac with their own bodies (Eciton).
  • Colonies of real army ants have only one queen, so when she dies, the workers may try to join another colony, or the rest of the colony also dies; Pheidologeton colonies can have many (up to 16) queens.
  • Pheidologeton species perform a nuptial flight; real army-ant queens have no wings (queens and workers of the Dorylus species are even blind) and mate on soil.
  • In Pheidologeton species, a new colony is established by a young queen; real army ants establish a new colony by splitting a large colony.
  • Pheidologeton species not only hunt insects, but also eat fruits and grains.

Contradictory reports about aggressivityEdit

Pheidologeton species have been described as very aggressive when hunting or defending their nest, but there are contradictory reports about how they react to other ant species: Generally, Pheidologeton species are said to avoid fights with other ant species (a keeper has reported he almost lost his colony to a Lasius niger invasion and watched Pheidologeton evading smaller Pheidole pieli, but a keeper who intentionally kept P. diversus with a Crematogaster species in the same terrarium reported that Pheidologeton workers had attacked and killed Crematogaster workers.

Pheidologeton supermajor castes can tear off human skin and can rip out flesh. Super major castes can be up to an inch Long. About 1 percent of the phiedologeton’s colony are majors and super majors.

Phiedologeton nest can be found in soil.

Queens build chambers with 15cm of depth.

This species is polygyne which means one colony can have 16 queens.

Phiedologeton diversus was the name for this ant before 2014. Because of taxonomical revision, this ant has been re-classified as carebara diversa.

RangeEdit

P. diversus is widely distributed from India through Southeast Asia to Taiwan and the Philippines.[2][5][7] Field records of it occurring Japan are limited although it has been found on two very southern points: Okinawa Island and on Chicchi-jima Island. Specimens taken at the Camp Zama U.S. Air Force base in Kanagawa Prefecture are believed to have originated from commercial introduction from Southeast Asia.[2]

SubspeciesEdit

The following subspecies have been noted:[2][5][8]

  • Pheidologeton diversus diversus (Jerdon, 1851)
  • Pheidologeton diversus draco (Santschi, 1920)
  • Pheidologeton diversus fictus (Forel, 1911)
  • Pheidologeton diversus laotinus (Santschi, 1920)
  • Pheidologeton diversus macgregori (Wheeler, 1929)
  • Pheidologeton diversus philippinus (Wheeler, 1929)
  • Pheidologeton diversus standfussi (Forel, 1911)
  • Pheidologeton diversus taprobanae (Smith, 1858)
  • Pheidologeton diversus tenuirugosus (Wheeler, 1929)
  • Pheidologeton diversus williamsi (Wheeler, 1929)

Under the alternate classification system, they are also known as:[1]

Keeping in a formicariumEdit

Regarded as "pseudo-army-ants," Pheidologeton diversus and Pheidologeton affinis are popular pets, but they are said to be very sensitive and difficult to keep; even some experienced antkeepers have lost their colonies just after a few months.
It seems not possible to keep real army ants in a formicarium (ant farm) for a longer time because of their nomadic lifestyle, the continuous growth of the colony, and the immense need of food (some army-ant species are also highly selective when it comes to food). In trials performed by zoos and museums, the army-ant colonies died within weeks or months.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Georg Fischer, Frank Azorsa, Brian Fisher (2014). "The ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): synonymisation of Pheidologeton Mayr under Carebara, establishment and revision of the C. polita species group". ZooKeys. 438: 57–112. doi:10.3897/zookeys.438.7922. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 4155725. PMID 25197219.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Japanese Ant Database Group
  3. ^ "Sri Lanka Species Database". CHM Sri Lanka. 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  4. ^ myrmecos.net: Pheidologeton (marauder ants) Archived 2009-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c The Ants of Africa: Pheidologeton diversus (Jerdon) Archived 2009-01-08 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ The Response Behavior of Ant Pheidologeton diversus on Encountering an Obstacle Along Its Trail
  7. ^ Discover Life: Pheidologeton diversus
  8. ^ Integrated Taxonomic Information System

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit