Peter Ward (paleontologist)
Peter Douglas Ward (born 1949) is an American paleontologist and professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Sprigg Institute of Geobiology at the University of Adelaide. He has written numerous popular science works for a general audience and is also an adviser to the Microbes Mind Forum.
Peter Douglas Ward
Seattle, United States of America
|Known for||work on the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event|
|Fields||Paleontology, Biology, Astrobiology|
Life and workEdit
His parents, Joseph and Ruth Ward, moved to Seattle following World War II. Ward grew up in the Seward Park neighborhood of Seattle, attending Franklin High School, and he spent time during summers at a family summer cabin on Orcas Island.
Ward's academic career has included teaching posts and professional connections with Ohio State University, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, the University of California, McMaster University (where he received his PhD in 1976), and the California Institute of Technology. He was elected as a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences in 1984.
Ward specializes in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, the Permian–Triassic extinction event, and mass extinctions generally. He has published books on biodiversity and the fossil record. His 1992 book On Methuselah's Trail received a "Golden Trilobite Award" from the Paleontological Society as the best popular science book of the year. Ward also serves as an adjunct professor of zoology and astronomy.
Ward is co-author, along with astronomer Donald Brownlee, of the best-selling Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe, published in 2000. In that work, the authors suggest that the universe is fundamentally hostile to advanced life, and that, while simple life might be abundant, the likelihood of widespread lifeforms as advanced as those on Earth is marginal. In 2001, his book Future Evolution was published, featuring illustrations by artist Alexis Rockman.
Ward and Brownlee are also co-authors of the book The Life and Death of Planet Earth: How the New Science of Astrobiology Charts the Ultimate Fate of the World, which discusses the Earth's future and eventual demise as it is ultimately destroyed by a warming and expanding Sun. In this book, Ward and Brownlee depict Earth's long-term future by comparing its lifespan to that of a typical human's, pointing out that its systems that keep it habitable will gradually break down one by one, like organs in a humans as he or she dies. They also predict the Earth's eventual fate by compressing its 12 billion-year-old history to a clock spanning 12 hours, with the first life appearing at 1:00 am, and the first animals and plants appearing at 4:00 am, with the present day being 4:29.59 am; and even though the Earth will be destroyed by the Sun at "high noon", animals and plants will come to an end by 5:00 am. The book actually picks up where Rare Earth has left off, this time it talk about how and why the Earth and its ability to support complex and especially intelligent life is actually not just rare in space, but also in time all because of this. See also Future of the Earth.
According to Ward's 2007 book, Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and What They Can Tell Us About Our Future, all but one of the major mass extinction events in history have been brought on by climate change. The author argues that events in the past can give valuable information about the future of our planet. Reviewer Doug Brown goes further, stating "this is how the world ends." Scientists at the Universities of York and Leeds also warn that the fossil record supports evidence of impending mass extinction. Recently, Ward is slowly starting to shift his interest toward climate change because of his experiences with studying mass extinctions, as well as justifying why intelligent life, including humanity, is especially even rarer than complex life in general in terms of both space and time, as intelligent life only lasts for just a few thousand years before finally collapsing and going extinct, as seen in the book The Flooded Earth: Our Future in a World Without Ice Caps, which documents the effects of ongoing and future man-made climate change. However, in 2014, Ward returned to his roots as a paleontologist with his book A New History of Life, co-authored with Joe Kirschvink, and in his upcoming 2018 book, Lamarck's Revenge.
The Medea hypothesis is a term coined by Ward for the anti-Gaian hypothesis that multicellular life, understood as a superorganism, is suicidal. In this view, microbial-triggered mass extinctions are attempts to return the Earth to the microbial-dominated state it has been for most of its history. In 2009 Ward wrote a book about this hypothesis under the same name.
Highly Disputed Low Oxygen During the Mesozoic ClaimEdit
"...for argument’s sake, even if the dinosaurs had survived the climatic ravages triggered by the comet that struck the Yucatan coast some 66 million years ago, could they have vectored into anything like human intelligence? No cell in biology requires more oxygen than a nerve cell which has to fire a chemical charge across a long thin [brain] cell,” said Ward. 
Ward claims that when dinosaurs first evolved during the Mesozoic, the era spanning some 250 to 65 million years ago Earth’s atmospheric oxygen levels were much too low for large brains to have developed. “To have enough energy for intelligence is going to require oxygen,” said Ward. “For life on land, it’s got to be high oxygen and getting high oxygen is very difficult to do.”
This is a highly disputed claim. Different studies have come to different conclusions about the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere during different parts of the Mesozoic, with some concluding oxygen levels were lower than the current level (about 21%) throughout the Mesozoic,  some concluding they were lower in the Triassic and part of the Jurassic but higher in the Cretaceous,   and some concluding they were higher throughout most or all of the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous. 
Peter Ward was featured in the PBS's Evolution series (2001) to discuss the evidence for evolution in the geologic record and has appeared on NOVA scienceNOW. He was also one of the scientists on Animal Planet's Animal Armageddon (2009).
- In Search of Nautilus: Three Centuries of Scientific Adventures in the Deep Pacific to Capture a Prehistoric, Living Fossil (1988) ISBN 978-0-671-61951-0 OCLC 17840660
- On Methuselah's Trail: Living Fossils and the Great Extinctions (1992) ISBN 978-0-7167-2488-9
- The Call of Distant Mammoths: Why the Ice Age Mammals Disappeared (1997) ISBN 978-0-387-98572-5
- Time Machines: Scientific Exploration of Deep Time (1998) ISBN 978-0-387-98416-2
- Rivers in Time: the Search for Clues to Earth's Mass Extinctions (2000) ISBN 978-0-231-11862-0
- Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe with Donald Brownlee (2000) ISBN 978-0-387-95289-5
- Future Evolution: An Illuminated History of Life to Come (2001) ISBN 978-0-7167-3496-3
- The Life and Death of Planet Earth: How the New Science of Astrobiology Charts the Ultimate Fate of Our World with Donald Brownlee (2003) ISBN 978-0-8050-7512-0
- Gorgon: Obsession, Paleontology, and the Greatest Catastrophe in Earth's History (2004) ISBN 978-0-670-03094-1
- Life as We Do Not Know It: The NASA Search for (and Synthesis of) Alien Life (2005) ISBN 0-670-03458-4
- Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth's Ancient Atmosphere (2006) ISBN 0-309-10061-5
- Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and What They Can Tell Us About Our Future (2007) ISBN 978-0-06-113791-4
- The Medea Hypothesis: Is Life on Earth Ultimately Self-Destructive? (2009) ISBN 0-691-13075-2
- The Flooded Earth: Our Future In a World Without Ice Caps (2010) ISBN 978-0-465-00949-7
- A New History of Life: The radical new discoveries about the origins and evolution of life on Earth with Joe Kirschvink (2015) ISBN 978-1608199075
- Lamarck's Revenge: How Epigenetics Is Revolutionizing Our Evolution's Past and Present (2018) ISBN 9781632866172
- "Advisers, Microbe Mind Forum". Archived from the original on 2014-02-28.
- Dietrich, William (2005-12-09). "Prophet, Populist, Poet of Science". Pacific Northwest Magazine. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Motluk, Alison (2002-01-29). ""Future Evolution" by Peter Ward". Salon. Archived from the original on 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2010-10-20.
- "Anthropology Update/ Future Evolution". Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. 2002-03-22. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
- Ward, Peter Douglas (2007). Under a Green Sky: Global Warming, the Mass Extinctions of the Past, and What They Can Tell Us About Our Future. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins. OCLC 224875122. Lay summary (July–August 2007).
by Christopher Cokinos, Orion magazine
- Bennett, Drake (January 11, 2009). "Dark green. A scientist argues that the natural world isn't benevolent and sustaining: it's bent on self-destruction". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- Peter Ward speaker profile. TED. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- D'Arconte (February 10, 2009). "Is Mother Nature nuts?". The Sun Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Robert A. Berner, John M. VandenBrooks and Peter D. Ward, 2007, Oxygen and Evolution. Science 27 April 2007, Vol. 316 no. 5824 pp. 557–58 .
- Berner R. A. 2006 GEOCARBSULF: a combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 5653–64
- Berner, Robert A., 2009, Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen: New results using the GEOCARBSULF model. Am. J. Sci. 309 no. 7, 603–06.
- Berner R. A., Canfield D. E. 1989 A new model for atmospheric oxygen over phanerozoic time. Am. J. Sci. 289, 333–61.
- Berner, R, et al., 2003, Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., V, 31, p. 105–34.
- Glasspool, I.J., Scott, A.C., 2010, Phanerozoic concentrations of atmospheric oxygen reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal, Nature Geosciences, 3, 627–30
- Bergman N. M., Lenton T. M., Watson A. J. 2004 COPSE: a new model of biogeochemical cycling over Phanaerozoic time. Am. J. Sci. 304, 397–437. See the dashed line in Fig. 1 of Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size by Jon F. Harrison, Alexander Kaiser and John M. VandenBrooks
- The Science of Doom: Peter Ward takes on the great unknowns, Pacific Northwest magazine (Seattle Times), December 11, 2005, p. 12ff
- Collection of interviews of Peter Ward
- His homepage at University of Adelaide
- Peter Ward faculty page at the University of Washington
- Video of interview/discussion about mass extinctions with Peter Ward and Carl Zimmer on Bloggingheads.tv
- Video discussion about the link between paleontology & astrobiology with Peter Ward and Carl Zimmer on Bloggingheads.tv
- Peter Ward lecture on the Medea hypothesis and mass extinctions
- on YouTube (April 2013)