NASA Astrobiology Institute
The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) "to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions."
|Headquarters||NASA Ames Research Center|
|$16 million (2008)|
Although NASA had explored the idea of forming an astrobiology institute in the past, when the Viking biological experiments returned negative results for life on Mars, the public lost interest and federal funds for exobiology dried up. In 1996, the announcement of possible traces of ancient life in the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite from Mars led to new interest in the subject. At the same time, NASA developed the Origins Program, broadening its reach from exobiology to astrobiology, the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
In 1998, $9 million was set aside to fund the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), an interdisciplinary research effort using the expertise of different scientific research institutions and universities from across the country, centrally linked to Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Gerald Soffen former Project Scientist with the Viking program, helped coordinate the new institute. In May, NASA selected eleven science teams, each with a Principal Investigator (PI). NAI was established in July with Scott Hubbard as interim Director. Nobel laureate Baruch S. Blumberg was appointed the first Director of the institute, and served from May 15, 1999 – October 14, 2002.
On 2 December 2010 the Institute announced that one of its funded projects at the US Geological Survey, had discovered the first microorganism able to incorporate arsenic in its DNA instead of phosphate. The GFAJ-1 bacterium was found by team researchers at Mono Lake in California, but other researchers questioned and debunked the findings.
The NASA Astrobiology Program includes the NAI as one of four components, including the Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program; the Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program; and the Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) Program. Program budgets for fiscal year 2008 were as follows: NAI, $16 million; Grants for the Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program, $11 million; ASTID, $9 million; ASTEP, $5 million.
- Spain Astrobiology Center (CAB) at the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Spain
- Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA) at the University of New South Wales
- Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB)
- Canadian Astrobiology Network (CAN) at Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX), at the University of Western Ontario
- European Exo/Astrobiology Network Association (EANA)
- Helmholtz Alliance: Planetary Evolution and Life
- Instituto de Astrobiología Colombia (IAC)
- Japan AstroBiology Consortium (JABC), a partnership of the Earth-Life Science Institute and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences
- Nordic Network of Astrobiology
- Russian Astrobiology Center (RAC)
- Sociedad Mexicana de Astrobiología (SOMA)
- Société Française d’Exobiologie (SFE) 
- UK Centre for Astrobiology at The University of Edinburgh
- University of São Paulo (USP)
Selected, significant topics of interdisciplinary research by NAI as of 2008:
- Comets in space and in the laboratory
- Discovery of the "rare biosphere"
- Early habitability of Earth
- Early wet Mars
- Exoplanet discovery and analysis
- Life without the Sun
- Metal isotope tracers of environment and biology
- Methane on Mars
- Microbial mat ecology
- Modeling exoplanet biospheres
- Origins of life
- Snowball Earth
- Sub-seafloor life
- The rise of oxygen and Earth's "middle age"
- Bunk, Steve (1998-06-22). "Astrobiology Makes Debut Under NASA". The Scientist. Faculty of 1000. 12 (13).
- NASA Astrobiology Institute (August 31, 2010). "About NAI". NASA.
- J.K.B. (Nov 2002). "Changes Urged for Astrobiology Effort". Sky & Telescope. Sky Publishing Corporation. 104 (5): 23. Bibcode:2002S&T...104e..23B. ISSN 0037-6604.
- Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, National Research Council (2008). Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-11497-4.
- Lawler, Andrew (1998-05-29). "Astrobiology Institute Picks Partners". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 280 (5368): 1338. doi:10.1126/science.280.5368.1338.
- Blumberg, Baruch S. (Nov 2003). "The NASA Astrobiology Institute: Early History and Organization". Astrobiology. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 3 (3): 463–470. Bibcode:2003AsBio...3..463B. doi:10.1089/153110703322610573. PMID 14678657.
- Brown, Dwayme and Cathy Weselby, "NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical", Nasa, 2 December 2010, retrieved on 3 December 2010.
- "Studies refute arsenic bug claim". BBC News. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- Tobias J. Erb; Patrick Kiefer; Bodo Hattendorf; Detlef Gunter; Julia Vorholt (July 8, 2012). "GFAJ-1 Is an Arsenate-Resistant, Phosphate-Dependent Organism". Science. 337 (6093): 467–70. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..467E. doi:10.1126/science.1218455. PMID 22773139.
- RRResearch By Rosie Redfield. January 16, 2012
- Marshall Louis Reaves; Sunita Sinha; Joshua Rabinowitz; Leonid Kruglyak; Rosemary Redfield (July 8, 2012). "Absence of Detectable Arsenate in DNA from Arsenate-Grown GFAJ-1 Cells". Science. 337 (6093): 470–3. arXiv:1201.6643. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..470R. doi:10.1126/science.1219861. PMC 3845625. PMID 22773140.
- Teams, NASA Astrobiology Institute Teams. May 29, 2018.
- NAI Introduction and Overview. December 7, 2014.
- NAI, International Partners. April 13, 2015.
- Biever, Celeste (2003-07-05). "After a decade in the cold, SETI gets money from NASA". New Scientist. Reed Business Information Ltd. 179 (2402): 8. ISSN 0262-4079.
NASA Astrobiology Institute awarded the SETI Institute $5 million spread over five years for 10 projects, including one that feeds directly into the search for intelligent life. This project aims to target specific solar systems that are likely to support life, and will use telescopes to screen a type of star called an M-star
- Dick, Steven J. (2005). The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3733-7.
- Grymes, Rosalind A. (Jan–Feb 2002). "The NASA Astrobiology Institute: Reaching Within and Beyond". Ad Astra. National Space Society. 14 (1): 12. ISSN 1041-102X.
- Lawler, Andrew (2007-01-19). "Astrobiology Fights for Its Life". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 315 (5810): 318–321. doi:10.1126/science.315.5810.318. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17234924.
- Mecham, Michael (1999-06-14). "Astrobiology team taking shape at Ames". Aviation Week & Space Technology. McGraw-Hill. 150 (24): 211. ISSN 0005-2175.
- Sawyer, Kathy (1999). "Out of the Lab, And This World; Hands-On Nobel Laureate to Lead NASA Agency Studying Life's Origins". The Washington Post. p. A17.