Penryn and Falmouth (UK Parliament constituency)
Penryn and Falmouth was the name of a constituency in Cornwall, England, UK, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 until 1950. From 1832 to 1918 it was a parliamentary borough, initially returning two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.
|Penryn and Falmouth|
|Former County constituency|
for the House of Commons
|Major settlements||Penryn and Falmouth|
|Number of members||One|
|Replaced by||Truro and Falmouth & Camborne|
|Created from||Penryn and Falmouth, St Austell and Truro|
|Number of members||1832-1885: Two;|
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
|Replaced by||Penryn and Falmouth|
|Created from||Cornwall and Penryn|
Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, its representation was reduced to one member, elected by the first past the post system. In 1918 the borough was abolished and the name was transferred to a county constituency electing one MP.
1918-1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Falmouth, Penryn, and Truro, the Urban District of St Austell, and parts of the Rural Districts of East Kerrier, Truro, and St Austell.
The constituency was created by the Reform Act 1832 (the "Great Reform Act") as a replacement for the Penryn constituency, which had become a notoriously rotten borough. The new borough consisted of Penryn, Falmouth and parts of Budock and St Gluvias parishes, giving it a mostly urban population of nearly 12,000, of whom 875 were registered to vote at its first election in 1832.
Initially Penryn and Falmouth elected two MPs, but this was reduced to one in 1885. It was one of the smallest constituencies in England for the next thirty years. At this period its voters were politically unpredictable; though generally among the more Conservative Cornish constituencies, they were influenced by personal factors and often swung against the national tide of opinion. Falmouth, which had a stronger non-conformist presence, was the more Liberal part of the constituency in the late 19th century, but was thought to become more Conservative as it developed its economy as a destination seaside resort.
In 1918 the borough was abolished, but the Penryn and Falmouth name was applied to the county constituency in which the two towns were placed. This was a much more extensive constituency, covering the whole of south central Cornwall, including the towns of Truro and St Austell as well a long stretch of coastline. The constituency had a more industrial character (a sixth of the population were engaged in tin mining); the area suffered badly from unemployment in the 1930s, and in 1935 the Labour Party came within 3,031 votes of winning what would have been their first seat in Cornwall.
Members of ParliamentEdit
Penryn & Falmouth borough 1832–1885Edit
Penryn & Falmouth borough 1885–1918Edit
|1885||David James Jenkins||Liberal|
|1886||William George Cavendish-Bentinck||Conservative|
|1895||Frederick John Horniman||Liberal|
|1906||Sir John Barker||Liberal|
|1910||Charles Sydney Goldman||Unionist|
|1918||Borough abolished; name transferred to county division|
Penryn & Falmouth division of Cornwall 1918–1950Edit
|1918||Sir Edward Nicholl||Coalition Conservative|
|1922||Capt Denis Shipwright||Conservative|
|1923||Sir Courtenay Mansel||Liberal|
|1929||Sir Tudor Walters||Liberal|
Elections in the 1840sEdit
Rolfe resigned after being appointed a Judge of the Court of the Exchequer, causing a by-election.
|Whig||Edward John Hutchins||462||66.0|
|Whig||James Hanway Plumridge||432||28.5|
|Conservative||Edward John Sartoris||240||15.8|
|Whig gain from Conservative||Swing|
|Turnout||506 (est)||58.6 (est)||−28.3|
|Conservative gain from Whig||Swing||+20.0|
|Radical gain from Whig||Swing||−21.8|
Elections in the 1850sEdit
|Conservative||James William Freshfield||435||35.1||+26.5|
|Turnout||789 (est)||87.0 (est)||+28.4|
|Conservative gain from Radical||Swing||+15.7|
|Independent Liberal||Samuel Gurney||Unopposed|
|Whig gain from Conservative|
|Independent Liberal gain from Conservative|
Baring was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, requiring a by-election.
|Independent Liberal||Samuel Gurney||373||29.0||N/A|
|Conservative||John Fitzgerald Leslie Foster||200||15.6||N/A|
|Turnout||643 (est)||77.4 (est)||N/A|
|Independent Liberal hold||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1860sEdit
|Independent Liberal||Samuel Gurney||Unopposed|
|Independent Liberal hold|
Baring succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Northbrook and causing a by-election.
|Turnout||1,312 (est)||72.5 (est)||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||N/A|
|Conservative gain from Independent Liberal||Swing||N/A|
Elections in the 1870sEdit
|Liberal||David James Jenkins||851||28.1|
|Liberal||Henry Thomas Cole||784||25.9|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Liberal||David James Jenkins||1,176||30.2||+2.1|
|Conservative||John D. Mayne||765||19.6||−1.8|
|Turnout||1,947 (est)||88.4 (est)||+7.1|
|Liberal||David James Jenkins||1,170||52.3||−5.4|
|Liberal||David James Jenkins||998||47.8||-4.5|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+4.5|
Elections in the 1890sEdit
|Liberal||Frederick John Horniman||1,150||51.1||+9.2|
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+9.2|
Elections in the 1900sEdit
|Liberal||Frederick John Horniman||1,184||50.4||−0.7|
|Conservative||Nathaniel Louis Cohen||1,164||49.6||+0.7|
|Conservative||D B Hall||1,248||48.1||−1.5|
Elections in the 1910sEdit
|Conservative||Charles Sydney Goldman||1,593||53.0||+4.9|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+4.9|
|Conservative||Charles Sydney Goldman||1,585||55.1||+2.1|
General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
- Unionist: Charles Sydney Goldman
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
Elections in the 1920sEdit
|National Liberal||George Hay Morgan||2,129||7.9||n/a|
|Liberal gain from Unionist||Swing||+17.0|
|Labour||Frederick Jesse Hopkins||6,462||22.4||n/a|
|Unionist gain from Liberal||Swing||+16.5|
|Labour||Frederick Jesse Hopkins||11,166||28.9||+6.5|
|Liberal gain from Unionist||Swing||+6.0|
Elections in the 1930sEdit
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+4.4|
|Liberal||Ronald Wilberforce Allen||11,537||28.3||-6.3|
A General election was due to take place before the end of 1940, but was postponed due to the Second World War. By 1939, the following candidates had been selected to contest this constituency;
Elections in the 1940sEdit
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing|
- Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 44–46. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
- Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 196. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. p. 211. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via Google Books.
- E J Hutchins was subsequently elected for Lymington 1850–1857. There is a biography of him at Masonic Province of South Wales, Eastern Division. Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- The Spectator, Volume 12. F.C. Westley. 1839. p. 1204. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "The Recent Elections". Essex Standard. 31 January 1840. p. 1. Retrieved 21 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Elections". Dublin Morning Register. 29 January 1840. p. 3. Retrieved 21 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "General Election 1841". Morning Post. 29 June 1841. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 14 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Elections Decided". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 10 July 1841. p. 6. Retrieved 14 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Evening Mail". 2 July 1841. p. 6. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Collet, Collet Dobson (1899). History of the Taxes on Knowledge: Their Origin and Repeal. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 93. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Cambridge Chronicle and Journal. 5 August 1854. pp. 4–5 https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000421/18540805/049/0005. Retrieved 22 April 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. Missing or empty
- Mallet, Bernard (1912). . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- "The General Elections". Morning Chronicle. 16 March 1857. p. 6. Retrieved 24 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- See ODNB article by Richard Davenport-Hines, ‘Gurney, Samuel (1816–1882)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 23 Jan 2008
- Hansard website gives dates of George Pilcher, MP as 1882 – 8 December 1962, in Parliament 29 October 1924 – 30 May 1929. The National Portrait Gallery, London has two photographic portraits of him, taken in 1927. He is described as journalist, barrister and politician. Rayment says he was born 26 February 1882. He was Secretary of the Royal Empire Society. The Times, 16 March 1935; pg. 9; Issue 47014; col D Notes his resignation as Secretary of the RES, after six years' service and his previous work as a journalist. The Times, 13 December 1962; pg. 12; Issue 55573; col E includes an Obituary, giving further information.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)
|url=(help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "General Election". London Evening Standard. 2 August 1847. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The Cornish Times". 7 May 1859. p. 4. Retrieved 24 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Representation of Penryn and Falmouth". Royal Cornwall Gazette. 25 June 1868. p. 6. Retrieved 15 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "Penryn And Falmouth". The Cornishman (90). 1 April 1880. p. 5.
- British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949 by FWS Craig
- CARKEEK, Sir Arthur’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 ; online edn, April 2014 accessed 18 Sept 2017
- Michael Kinnear, The British Voter (London: BH Batsford, Ltd, 1968)
- Henry Pelling, Social Geography of British Elections 1885-1910 (London: Macmillan, 1967)
- J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
- Frederic A Youngs, jr, Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol I (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979)
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 1)