Pegivirus is the approved name for a genus of single positive stranded RNA viruses in the family Flaviviridae. The name is derived one: "Pe" stands for "persistent" and "g" provides an historical reference to the former names of the human viruses ("G"B virus or hepatitis "G" virus).
|Group:||Group IV ((+)ssRNA)|
There are eleven named species within the Pegivirus genus. Isolates belonging to the species Pegivirus C are monophyletic and show < 50% nucleotide (55% amino acid) sequence divergence between aligned sequences from the polyprotein from each other. However all differ by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) divergence from other members of this genus. Pegiviruses assigned to this species (Pegivirus A) originate from primate host species (humans, chimpanzees and several New World monkey species). The sequence U22303 has been assigned the type member of the species as this was the first pegivirus to be described for this species. Terminology to describe viruses with different hosts has not been approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV); however, Pegivirus A viruses have been called HPgV for human pegivirus, SPgV for new world simian pegiviruses, and SPgVcpz for chimpanzee simian virus. This remains an area requiring further clarification.
A second species within the pegiviruses is termed Pegivirus B. Only one virus was included in the naming proposal, which was a complete genome of a virus found in the bat species Pteropus giganteus. This sequence differs by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) divergence from all proposed members of the primate-derived Pegivirus C species that originate from primate host species (humans, chimpanzees and several New World monkey species). The sequence GU566734 has been assigned the type member of the species as this was the first pegivirus to be described for this species.
The use of deep sequencing technologies has identified additional viruses that differ from Pegivirus B species by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) and Pegivirus C in rodents, horses, and in different bat species, and old world monkeys and the number of Pegivirus species has been expanded to eleven.
- Pegivirus A includes the virus GBV-A
- Pegivirus B includes the virus GBV-D
- Pegivirus C includes the virus GBV-C
- Pegivirus D includes the virus Theiler’s disease-associated virus
- Pegivirus E includes the virus Equine pegivirus
- Pegivirus F includes the virus Bat pegivirus
- Pegivirus G includes the virus Bat pegivirus
- Pegivirus H includes the virus Human hepegivirus/Human pegivirus 2
- Pegivirus I includes the virus Bat pegivirus
- Pegivirus J includes the virus Rodent pegivirus
- Pegivirus K includes the virus Porcine pegivirus
The following text requires updating in view of the recent taxonomic changes.
In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae (GBV-A and GBV-B) were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation with the 11th GB passage. GBV-B has been assigned to the Hepacivirus genus, whereas GBV-A may be assigned to the new Pegivirus genus. A number of GBV-A variants were later identified in wild New World monkeys that were captured.
Subsequently a human virus was identified [GBV-C or hepatitis G virus (HGV)].
A more distantly related virus (GBV-D) was later discovered in the bat (Pteropus giganteus). Another virus—rodent pegavirus—has been isolated from the white throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula). A pegivirus (equine pegivirus) has also been isolated from a horse.
The genus Pegivirus was proposed in 2011.
Human hepegivirus 1 is a virus isolated from 2 multiply transfused hemophiliacs and two transfused patients. This virus appears to belong to a new clade in the Pegiviruses.
The human pegiviruses appear to be related to the non human primate species.
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