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Pegivirus is the approved name for a genus of single positive stranded RNA viruses in the family Flaviviridae.[1][2][3][4] The name is derived one: "Pe" stands for "persistent" and "g" provides an historical reference to the former names of the human viruses ("G"B virus or hepatitis "G" virus).

Flaviviruses
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Pegivirus
Species

Pegivirus A
Pegivirus B
Pegivirus C
Pegivirus D
Pegivirus E
Pegivirus F
Pegivirus G
Pegivirus H
Pegivirus I
Pegivirus J
Pegivirus K

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

There are eleven named species within the Pegivirus genus.[2] Isolates belonging to the species Pegivirus C are monophyletic and show < 50% nucleotide (55% amino acid) sequence divergence between aligned sequences from the polyprotein from each other. However all differ by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) divergence from other members of this genus. Pegiviruses assigned to this species (Pegivirus A) originate from primate host species (humans, chimpanzees and several New World monkey species). The sequence U22303 has been assigned the type member of the species as this was the first pegivirus to be described for this species. Terminology to describe viruses with different hosts has not been approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV); however, Pegivirus A viruses have been called HPgV for human pegivirus, SPgV for new world simian pegiviruses, and SPgVcpz for chimpanzee simian virus. This remains an area requiring further clarification.

A second species within the pegiviruses is termed Pegivirus B. Only one virus was included in the naming proposal, which was a complete genome of a virus found in the bat species Pteropus giganteus. This sequence differs by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) divergence from all proposed members of the primate-derived Pegivirus C species that originate from primate host species (humans, chimpanzees and several New World monkey species). The sequence GU566734 has been assigned the type member of the species as this was the first pegivirus to be described for this species.

The use of deep sequencing technologies has identified additional viruses that differ from Pegivirus B species by >50% nucleotide (>55% amino acid) and Pegivirus C in rodents, horses, and in different bat species, and old world monkeys and the number of Pegivirus species has been expanded to eleven.[5]

Revised taxonomyEdit

The species known in 2016 have been classified into 11 species—Pegivirus A–K.[2][5]

  • Pegivirus A includes the virus GBV-A
  • Pegivirus B includes the virus GBV-D
  • Pegivirus C includes the virus GBV-C
  • Pegivirus D includes the virus Theiler’s disease-associated virus
  • Pegivirus E includes the virus Equine pegivirus
  • Pegivirus F includes the virus Bat pegivirus
  • Pegivirus G includes the virus Bat pegivirus
  • Pegivirus H includes the virus Human hepegivirus/Human pegivirus 2
  • Pegivirus I includes the virus Bat pegivirus
  • Pegivirus J includes the virus Rodent pegivirus
  • Pegivirus K includes the virus Porcine pegivirus

HistoryEdit

The following text requires updating in view of the recent taxonomic changes.[2]

In 1967 it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G. Barker) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis.

In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae (GBV-A and GBV-B) were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation with the 11th GB passage. GBV-B has been assigned to the Hepacivirus genus,[2] whereas GBV-A may be assigned to the new Pegivirus genus.[3] A number of GBV-A variants were later identified in wild New World monkeys that were captured.

Subsequently a human virus was identified [GBV-C or hepatitis G virus (HGV)].

A more distantly related virus (GBV-D) was later discovered in the bat (Pteropus giganteus).[6] Another virus—rodent pegavirus—has been isolated from the white throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula).[7] A pegivirus (equine pegivirus) has also been isolated from a horse.[8]

The genus Pegivirus was proposed in 2011.[9]

Theiler's disease — a form of equine hepatitis — also appears to be caused by a pegivirus—Theiler's disease-associated virus.[10]

Human hepegivirus 1 is a virus isolated from 2 multiply transfused hemophiliacs and two transfused patients.[11] This virus appears to belong to a new clade in the Pegiviruses.

A related virus has been isolated from the graceful catshark (Proscyllium habereri).[12]

The human pegiviruses appear to be related to the non human primate species.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens; Gould, Ernest A.; Meyers, Gregor; Monath, Tom; Muerhoff, Scott; Pletnev, Alexander; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Smith, Donald B.; Stapleton, Jack T. (1 January 2017). "ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae". Journal of General Virology. 98 (1): 2–3. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.000672. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "ICTV Report Flaviviridae". 
  3. ^ a b Stapleton JT, Foung S, Muerhoff AS, Bukh J, Simmonds P (2011) The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol 92(2):233–246 doi: 10.1099/vir.0.027490-0
  4. ^ Adams MJ, King AMQ, Carstens EB (2013) Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Arch Virol 158(12):2633–2639. doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1749-9
  5. ^ a b Smith DB, Becher P, Bukh J, Gould EA, Meyers G, Monath T, Muerhoff AS, Pletnev A, Rico-Hesse R, Stapleton JT, Simmonds P (2016) Proposed update to the taxonomy of the genera Hepacivirus and Pegivirus within the Flaviviridae family. J Gen Virol 97(11):2894–2907
  6. ^ Epstein JH, Quan PL, Briese T, et al. (2010). "Identification of GBV-D, a novel GB-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (Pteropus giganteus) in Bangladesh". PLoS Pathog. 6: e1000972. PMC 2895649 . PMID 20617167. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000972. 
  7. ^ Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Scheel TK, Hjelle B, Cullen JM, Burbelo PD, Chauhan LV, Duraisamy R, Sanchez Leon M, Jain K, Vandegrift KJ, Calisher CH, Rice CM, Lipkin WI (2013) Identification of rodent homologs of hepatitis C virus and pegiviruses. MBio 4(2). pii: e00216–13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00216-13
  8. ^ Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Cullen JM, Scheel TK, Medina JL, Giannitti F, Nishiuchi E, Brock KV, Burbelo PD, Rice CM, Lipkin WI (2013) Identification of a pegivirus (GB Virus-like virus) that infects horses. J Virol 87(12):7185–90. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00324-13
  9. ^ Stapleton JT, Foung S, Muerhoff AS, Bukh J, Simmonds P (2011) The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae. J Gen Virol 92233–92246
  10. ^ Chandriani S, Skewes-Cox P, Zhong W, Ganem DE, Divers TJ, Van Blaricum AJ, Tennant BC, Kistler AL (2013) Identification of a previously undescribed divergent virus from the Flaviviridae family in an outbreak of equine serum hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(15):E1407–15. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1219217110.
  11. ^ Kapoor A, Kumar A, Simmonds P, Bhuva N, Singh Chauhan L, Lee B, Sall AA, Jin Z, Morse SS, Shaz B, Burbelo PD, Lipkin WI (2015) Virome analysis of transfusion recipients reveals a novel human virus that shares genomic features with Hepaciviruses and Pegiviruses. MBio 6(5). pii: e01466–15. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01466-15
  12. ^ Shi M, Lin XD, Vasilakis N, Tian JH, Li CX, Chen LJ, Eastwood G, Diao XN, Chen MH, Chen X, Qin XC, Widen SG, Wood TG, Tesh RB, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ (2015) Divergent viruses discovered in arthropods and vertebrates revise the evolutionary history of the Flaviviridae and related viruses. J Virol 90(2):659–669
  13. ^ Thézé J, Lowes S, Parker J, Pybus OG (2015) Evolutionary and phylogenetic analysis of the hepaciviruses and pegiviruses. Genome Biol Evol 7(11):2996–3008