Pannonia Superior (transl. 'Upper Pannonia') was a Roman province created from the division of Pannonia in 103 AD, its capital in Carnuntum. It overlapped in territory with modern-day Hungary, Croatia, Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

Provincia Pannonia Superior
Province of the Roman Empire
103 AD–3rd century

The province of Pannonia Superior within the Roman Empire, c. 125 AD
• Established
103 AD
• Disestablished
3rd century
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Pannonia Prima
Pannonia Savia
Pannonia Superior on a 17th-century map of Nicolas Sanson, French cartographer

History edit

It was as governor of the province that Septimius Severus made his bid for the Roman Imperial throne in April 193 CE.

In 308 Emperor Diocletian chaired a historic meeting with his co-emperors Maximian and Galerius in Carnuntum, to solve the rising tensions within the Tetrarchy. Diocletian and Maximian were both present on 11 November 308, to see Galerius appoint Licinius to be Augustus in place of Valerius Severus, who had died at the hands of Maxentius. Galerius ordered Maximian, who had attempted to return to power after his own retirement, to step down permanently. At Carnuntum people begged Diocletian to return to the throne, to resolve the conflicts that had arisen through Constantine the Great's rise to power and Maxentius' usurpation.[1] Diocletian's reply: "If you could show the cabbage that I planted with my own hands to your emperor, he definitely wouldn't dare suggest that I replace the peace and happiness of this place with the storms of a never-satisfied greed."[2]

Cities edit

Some of the important cities in Upper Pannonia were:

Later usage edit

The northern part of the 8th-century Frankish March of Pannonia was also called Upper Pannonia. The name can be found even much later in a similar, but wider, meaning. E.g. Otto von Freising (Chron. 6, 15) uses it to refer to Austria (i.e. Austria proper) in the 12th century.

List of Roman governors edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 31–32; Lenski, 65; Odahl, 90.
  2. ^ Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus 39.6.
  3. ^ Unless otherwise noted, governors from 103 to 137 are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237
  4. ^ Margaret Roxan and Paul Holder, Roman Military Diplomas IV, published as Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. Supplement, No. 82 (2003), pp. 463f
  5. ^ Unless otherwise noted, governors from 137 to 179 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 235-238
  6. ^ Legates for A.D. 182 to 238 are based on Paul M.M. Leunissen, Konsuln und konsulare in der zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander: 180-235 n. Chr. (Amsterdam: Verlag J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 258f

Sources edit

  • Epitome de Caesaribus (translation) ca. 395.
  • Barnes, Timothy D., Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1
  • Lenski, Noel. "The Reign of Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 59–90. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2
  • Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1

External links edit