Pannonia Superior

Pannonia Superior, lit. Upper Pannonia, was a province of the Roman Empire. Its capital was Carnuntum. It was one on the border provinces on the Danube. It was formed in the year 103 AD by Emperor Trajan who divided the former province of Pannonia into two parts: Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior. The province included parts of present-day states of Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

Provincia Pannonia Superior
Province of the Roman Empire
103–3rd century
Roman Empire - Pannonia Superior (125 AD).svg
The province of Pannonia Superior within the Roman Empire, c. 125 AD
• Established
• Disestablished
3rd century
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Pannonia
Pannonia Prima Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Pannonia Savia Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg


It was as governor of the province that Septimius Severus made his bid for the Roman Imperial throne in April 193 CE.

In 308 Emperor Diocletian chaired a historic meeting with his co-emperors Maximian and Galerius in Carnuntum, to solve the rising tensions within the Tetrarchy. Diocletian and Maximian were both present on 11 November 308, to see Galerius appoint Licinius to be Augustus in place of Valerius Severus, who had died at the hands of Maxentius. Galerius ordered Maximian, who had attempted to return to power after his own retirement, to step down permanently. At Carnuntum people begged Diocletian to return to the throne, to resolve the conflicts that had arisen through Constantine the Great's rise to power and Maxentius' usurpation.[1] Diocletian's reply: "If you could show the cabbage that I planted with my own hands to your emperor, he definitely wouldn't dare suggest that I replace the peace and happiness of this place with the storms of a never-satisfied greed."[2]


Some of the important cities in Upper Pannonia were:

Later usageEdit

The northern part of the 8th-century Frankish March of Pannonia was also called Upper Pannonia. The name can be found even much later in a similar, but wider, meaning. E.g. Otto von Freising (Chron. 6, 15) uses it to refer to Austria (i.e. Austria proper) in the 12th century.

List of Roman governorsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 31–32; Lenski, 65; Odahl, 90.
  2. ^ Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus 39.6.
  3. ^ Unless otherwise noted, governors from 103 to 137 are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237
  4. ^ Margaret Roxan and Paul Holder, Roman Military Diplomas IV, published as Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. Supplement, No. 82 (2003), pp. 463f
  5. ^ Unless otherwise noted, governors from 137 to 179 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 235-238


  • Epitome de Caesaribus (translation) ca. 395.
  • Barnes, Timothy D., Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1
  • Lenski, Noel. "The Reign of Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 59–90. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2
  • Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1

External linksEdit