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Pakuranga (New Zealand electorate)

Population centresEdit

Pakuranga is one of 64 general electorates used in New Zealand general elections. It covers part of eastern Auckland around the eponymous suburb of Pakuranga. Other population centres include Farm Cove, Half Moon Bay, Bucklands Beach, parts of Highland Park and parts of Howick.

The boundaries of the Pakuranga electorate were last adjusted in the 2007 redistribution. Initially, the Representation Commission proposed substantial changes, but after hearing objections mainly about Pakuranga, Manukau East, and Manurewa, the shape of the Pakuranga electorate reverted to almost the boundaries prior to the review.[1] No boundary adjustments were undertaken in the subsequent 2013/14 redistribution.[2]

HistoryEdit

Pakuranga was first contested at the 1963 election, and won by future Labour Party frontbencher Bob Tizard. It was captured by National in 1972, and has stayed with National since, save for a brief interlude – the New Zealand Party's presence on the ballot paper in 1984 split the centre-right vote and handed the seat to Social Credit's Neil Morrison.

With the introduction of mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation in 1996 the seat was expanded to absorb most of the neighbouring seat of Howick. Its boundaries have remained largely unchanged since; an attempt in 2007 to resurrect a seat around Howick by pulling the Pakuranga boundaries across the Tamaki River and adding Panmure, Point England and Glen Innes from Auckland City was abandoned in the face of strenuous local objection. Instead, Howick was renamed Botany and centred on the rapid-growth areas of Flat Bush, Botany Downs and Dannemora.

Pakuranga is considered a safe National seat, with Maurice Williamson being easily re-elected at every election to 2014 after ousting Morrison in 1987.[3] In the 2014 election, Williamson had a majority of 12,867 votes over his nearest challenger, Barry Kirker of the Labour Party.[4]

Williamson announced in July 2016 that he would not stand for Parliament at the 2017 general election[5] and the seat was won by Simeon Brown, retaining it for the National Party.

Members of ParliamentEdit

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at a general election.

Key

 Labour    National    Independent    Social Credit    NZ First  

Election Winner
1963 election Bob Tizard
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election Gavin Downie
1975 election
1978 election Pat Hunt
1981 election
1984 election Neil Morrison
1987 election Maurice Williamson
1990 election
1993 election
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election Simeon Brown

List MPsEdit

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Pakuranga electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
2002 election Pita Paraone
2005 election

Election resultsEdit

2017 electionEdit

2017 general election: Pakuranga[6]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Simeon Brown 22,663 63.98 +4.23 22,149 61.69 +1.45
Labour Barry Kirker 7,777 21.95 −0.09 8,872 24.71 +8.79
NZ First Suzanne Kelly 2,039 5.75 2,369 6.59 −0.50
Green Guy Hunt 2,018 5.69 1,340 3.73 −2.60
Māori Carrie Stoddart-Smith 419 1.18 124 0.34 +0.03
Opportunities   436 1.21
ACT   272 0.75 −2.20
Conservative   83 0.23 −5.34
Legalise Cannabis   69 0.19 −0.12
People's Party   32 0.08
Outdoors   18 0.05
United Future   16 0.04 −0.19
Ban 1080   9 0.02 −0.01
Internet   9 0.02 −0.59
Mana   6 0.01 −0.61
Democrats   3 0.008 −0.012
Informal votes 506 96
Total Valid votes 35,422 35,903
National hold Majority 14,886

2014 electionEdit

2014 general election: Pakuranga[7]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Maurice Williamson 20,388 59.75 −6.11 20,854 60.24 −2.56
Labour Barry Kirker 7,521 22.04 +0.25 5,511 15.92 −2.70
Conservative Andrew Craig 3,465 10.15 +4.95 1,930 5.57 +2.02
ACT Jamie Whyte 2,030 5.95 +3.35 1,021 2.95 +1.16
NZ First   2,456 7.09 +1.42
Green   2,192 6.33 +0.12
Internet Mana   214 0.62 +0.50[a]
Legalise Cannabis   109 0.31 −0.03
Māori   108 0.31 −0.02
United Future   78 0.23 −0.23
Civilian   16 0.05 +0.05
Ban 1080   11 0.03 +0.03
Democrats   8 0.02 ±0.00
Independent Coalition   8 0.02 +0.02
Focus   4 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 721 101
Total Valid votes 34,125 34,621
Turnout 34,621 74.76 +4.77
National hold Majority 12,867 37.71 −6.35

2011 electionEdit

2011 general election: Pakuranga[8]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Maurice Williamson 20,694 65.86 +4.28 20,471 62.80 +3.10
Labour Sunny Kaushal 6,848 21.79 +0.17 6,068 18.62 -3.66
Conservative Lance Gedge 1,634 5.20 +5.20 1,156 3.55 +3.55
NZ First Helen Jane Mulford 1,430 4.55 +1.26 1,847 5.67 +2.18
ACT Chris Simmons 816 2.60 -3.74 585 1.79 -5.39
Green   2,024 6.21 +2.61
United Future   149 0.46 -0.50
Legalise Cannabis   112 0.34 +0.12
Māori   109 0.33 +0.03
Mana   40 0.12 +0.12
Alliance   20 0.06 +0.02
Libertarianz   9 0.03 -0.01
Democrats   5 0.02 +0.004
Informal votes 1,041 202
Total Valid votes 31,422 32,595
National hold Majority 13,846 44.06 +4.10

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 45,912[9]

2008 electionEdit

2008 general election: Pakuranga[10]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Maurice Williamson 21,430 61.58 21,099 59.70
Labour Brian Kelly 7,524 21.62 7,872 22.27
ACT Andrew Jollands 2,205 6.34 2,541 7.19
Green Zachary Dorner 1,480 4.25 1,273 3.60
NZ First Pita Paraone 1,146 3.29 1,231 3.48
United Future Quentin Todd 409 1.18 338 0.96
Progressive Jeffrey Ly 354 1.02 265 0.75
Kiwi Brian Hilder 252 0.72 123 0.35
Family Party   186 0.53
Bill and Ben   137 0.39
Māori   106 0.30
Legalise Cannabis   79 0.22
Pacific   38 0.11
Alliance   15 0.04
Libertarianz   13 0.04
Workers Party   12 0.03
RAM   6 0.02
Democrats   4 0.01
RONZ   4 0.01
Informal votes 329 80
Total Valid votes 34,800 35,342
National hold Majority 13,906 39.96

2005 electionEdit

2005 general election: Pakuranga[11]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Maurice Williamson 19,159 54.03 19,173 53.28
Labour Michael Wood 9,577 27.01 10,810 30.31
Independent Steve Baron 1,807 5.10
NZ First Pita Paraone 1,398 3.54 2105 5.85
ACT Bronny Jacobson 1,216 3.43 1,354 3.76
United Future Ian McInnes 833 2.35 878 2.44
Progressive Ly Meng 560 1.58 297 0.83
Destiny David Jesze 488 1.38 206 0.57
Christian Heritage Ewen McQueen 373 1.05 80 0.22
Direct Democracy Kevin Moore 49 0.14 11 0.03
Green   907 2.52
Māori   73 0.20
Legalise Cannabis   36 0.10
Libertarianz   14 0.04
Alliance   13 0.04
RONZ   7 0.02
99 MP   6 0.02
One NZ   6 0.02
Family Rights   5 0.01
Democrats   4 0.01
Informal votes 359 88
Total Valid votes 35,460 35,983
National hold Majority 9,582 27.02

2002 electionEdit

2002 general election: Pakuranga[12]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Maurice Williamson 14,010 43.42 8,470 26.02
Labour Michael Wood 9,454 29.30 10,375 31.87
ACT Andrew Jollands 2,419 7.50 4,712 14.47
NZ First Pita Paraone 2,001 6.20 3,859 11.85
United Future Ian McInnes 1,461 4.53 2,543 7.88
Green David Rose 1,040 3.22 1,173 3.60
Christian Heritage Jonothan Ko 876 2.71 426 1.31
Progressive Meng Ly 478 1.48 396 1.22
Alliance Paul Protheroe 158 0.49 192 0.58
ORNZ   204 0.63
Legalise Cannabis   93 0.28
One NZ   20 0.06
NMP   4 0.01
Mana Māori   0.00
Informal votes 378 84
Total Valid votes 32,266 32,553
National hold Majority 4,556

1999 electionEdit

Refer to Candidates in the New Zealand general election 1999 by electorate#Pakuranga for a list of candidates.

1993 electionEdit

1993 general election: Pakuranga[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Maurice Williamson 9,619 48.01 -16.24
Labour Heather Mackay 4,159 20.75
Alliance Denis Wilkins 3,203 15.98
NZ First David Moore 2,399 11.97
Christian Heritage John Starrenburg 367 1.83
McGillicuddy Serious Sasquatch 201 1.00
Natural Law Anne Brigid 87 0.43
Majority 5,460 27.25 -17.64
Turnout 20,035 84.04 -0.84
Registered electors 23,838

1990 electionEdit

1990 general election: Pakuranga[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Maurice Williamson 13,006 64.25 +20.89
Labour Paul Charles Grant 3,920 19.36
Green Peter Whitmore 2,211 10.92
NewLabour Sandy Gauntlett 420 2.07
Democrats Richard Pittams 312 1.54
Social Credit Colin Bernard Nicholls 166 0.82
McGillicuddy Serious Greg Pittams 124 0.61
Blokes Liberation Front Paul Brunton 50 0.24
Independent Elaine Wills 31 0.15
Majority 9,086 44.89 -35.16
Turnout 20,240 84.88 -5.76
Registered electors 23,843

1987 electionEdit

1987 general election: Pakuranga[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Maurice Williamson 8,987 43.36
Democrats Neil Morrison 6,969 33.62 -1.85
Labour B V M Wilson 4,700 22.67
Independent S Bogrich 70 0.33
Majority 2,018 9.73
Turnout 20,726 90.64 -4.48
Registered electors 22,866

1984 electionEdit

1984 general election: Pakuranga[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Social Credit Neil Morrison 8,271 35.47 -2.22
National Pat Hunt 8,099 34.73 -6.19
NZ Party Jo Grierson 3,804 16.31
Labour G Williams 3,101 13.30
Independent J R Marriott 39 0.16 -0.29
Majority 172 0.73
Turnout 23,314 95.12 +3.77
Registered electors 24,510

1981 electionEdit

1981 general election: Pakuranga[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Pat Hunt 9,908 40.92 +4.42
Social Credit Neil Morrison 9,125 37.69 +23.71
Labour Peter Turner 5,066 20.92
Independent J R Marriott 110 0.45
Majority 783 3.23 -6.88
Turnout 24,209 91.35 +15.53
Registered electors 26,501

1978 electionEdit

1978 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Pat Hunt 7,615 36.50
Labour E J Smith 5,504 26.38
Independent Gavin Downie 4,455 21.35
Social Credit Neil Morrison 2,918 13.98 +8.79
Values M H T Walker 269 1.28
Majority 2,111 10.11
Turnout 20,861 75.82 -11.58
Registered electors 27,513

1975 electionEdit

1975 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Gavin Downie 14,192 58.23 +6.79
Labour Geoff Braybrooke 7,176 29.44
Values Maurice Jenner 1,349 5.53
Social Credit Neil Morrison 1,265 5.19
Independent B J Curtis 356 1.46
Alpha C V Filmer 19 0.07
World Socialist M H Gribble 12 0.04
Majority 7,016 28.79 +18.84
Turnout 24,369 87.40 -3.40
Registered electors 27,881

1972 electionEdit

1972 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Gavin Downie 9,310 51.44
Labour J B Irwin 7,508 41.48
Social Credit B J Southon 1,153 6.37
New Democratic F J Collins 126 0.69
Majority 1,802 9.95
Turnout 18,097 90.80 +0.66
Registered electors 19,930

1969 electionEdit

1969 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Bob Tizard 9,030 51.20 -0.45
National N W Holmes 7,777 44.09
Social Credit James Robinson 692 3.92
Independent E V Posa 80 0.45
Communist Rita Smith 40 0.22
Independent Joseph Erwin Moosman 17 0.09 -0.30
Majority 1,253 7.10 -5.33
Turnout 17,636 90.14 +4.24
Registered electors 19,563

1966 electionEdit

1966 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Bob Tizard 9,380 51.65 -2.27
National Victor David Thompson 7,121 39.21
Social Credit Thomas Rayne Wreaks 1,588 8.74 +4.31
Independent Joseph Erwin Moosman 71 0.39
Majority 2,259 12.43 -0.51
Turnout 18,160 85.90 -1.45
Registered electors 21,139

1963 electionEdit

1963 general election: Pakuranga[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Bob Tizard 8,394 53.92
National Roland Mainwaring Neville-White 6,379 40.97
Social Credit Thomas Rayne Wreaks 690 4.43
Communist Rita Smith 104 0.66
Majority 2,015 12.94
Turnout 15,567 87.35
Registered electors 17,821

Table footnotesEdit

  1. ^ 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2007 (PDF). Representation Commission. 14 September 2007. pp. 8, 13. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  2. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  3. ^ "Hon Maurice Williamson". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  4. ^ "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Electoral Commission. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  5. ^ Jones, Nicholas (26 July 2016). "National and Pakuranga MP Maurice Williamson to leave Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Official Count Results – Pakuranga (2014)". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  8. ^ "Official Count Results – Pakuranga (2011)". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  9. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  10. ^ [1] Archived 12 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ [2][dead link]
  12. ^ "Official Count Results – Pakuranga". Electionresults.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  13. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 80.
  14. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 85.
  15. ^ a b c Norton 1988, p. 307.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Norton 1988, p. 306.

ReferencesEdit

  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.

External linksEdit