Mangic languages

  (Redirected from Pakanic languages)

The Mangic languages, which include the Pakanic languages, constitute a branch of Austroasiatic languages. They are spoken in southern China and northern Vietnam. The Mangic languages consist of Mang and two Pakanic languages, Bolyu and Bugan.

southern China
Linguistic classificationAustroasiatic
  • Mangic
Glottologmang1377  (partial match)[1]


Paul Sidwell's tentative classification is as follows.[2]

Mangic, as a unified language group with all three languages above, is recognized by Ilia Peiros (2004) and Jenny & Sidwell (2015), who classified Mang, Bolyu, and Bugan together. Jenny & Sidwell (2015) consider Mangic to be an independent branch of Austroasiatic.[3]

Various classifications had previously been proposed for individual Mangic languages. In 1990, Paul K. Benedict argued that Bolyu constitutes a separate Mon-Khmer branch. Edmondson & Gregerson (1996)[4] listed many phonological and lexical similarities shared by Bolyu and Vietic languages. However, Gérard Diffloth later suggested that Pakanic (i.e., Bolyu and Bugan) shares an affinity with Palaungic languages and was part of a wider Northern Mon-Khmer group. Nguyen Van Loi also classified Mang within the Samtau group of Waic with Palaungic, although he later classified Mang as a sister of Waic (Sidwell 2009:133). Peiros (2004) includes Mang within Pakanic.

Proto-Pakanic, the proto-language ancestral to Bolyu and Bugan but not Mang, was reconstructed by Andrew Hsiu (2016).[5] Hsiu (2017),[6] citing Li Xulian (1999), notes that Pakanic languages were formerly spoken further up north in Guizhou and were in close contact with Gelao. Hsiu (2017) also notes that Pakanic languages display loanword influence from Kra languages, and have also influenced Kra languages.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mangic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.
  4. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. and Kenneth J. Gregerson. 1996. "Bolyu tone in Vietic perspective." Mon–Khmer Studies 26: 117-33.
  5. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2016. A preliminary reconstruction of Proto-Pakanic. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127812
  6. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2017. Hezhang Buyi: a highly endangered Northern Tai language with a Kra substratum. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1249176
  • 李云兵 / Li Yunbing. 2005. 布赓语研究 / Bugeng yu yan jiu (A Study of Bugeng [Bugan]). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.

Further readingEdit

  • Dao Jie 刀洁. 2007. Bumang yu yanjiu 布芒语研究 [A study of Bumang]. Beijing: 民族出版社 [Nationalities Publishing House].
  • 李旭练 / Li Xulian. 1999. 倈语硏究 / Lai yu yan jiu. Beijing: 中央民族大学出版社 / Zhong yang min zu da xue chu ban she.
  • 高永奇 / Gao Yongqi. 2003. 莽语硏究 / Mang yu yan jiu (A Study of Mang). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
  • 高永奇 / Gao Yongqi. 2004. 布兴语研究 / Buxing yu yan jiu (A Study of Buxing). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
  • 陈国庆 / Chen Guoqing. 2005. 克蔑语研究 / Kemie yu yan jiu (A Study of Kemie). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
  • Liang Min [梁敏]. 1984. A sketch of Bolyu [俫语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 1984:4.
  • Li Jinfang [李錦芳]. 1996. A sketch of Bugan [布干语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 1996:6.
  • Gao Yongqi [高永奇]. 2001. A sketch of Mang [莽语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 2001:4.

External linksEdit