Pennsylvania Railroad class T1

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The Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) class T1 duplex-drive 4-4-4-4 steam locomotives, introduced in 1942 with two prototypes and later in 1945-1946 with 50 production examples, were the last steam locomotives built for the PRR and arguably its most controversial. They were ambitious, technologically sophisticated, powerful, fast and distinctively streamlined by Raymond Loewy. However, they were also prone to wheelslip both when starting and at speed, in addition to being complicated to maintain and expensive to run.[citation needed] The PRR decided in 1948 to place diesel locomotives on all express passenger trains, leaving unanswered questions as to whether the T1's flaws were solvable, especially taking into account that the two prototypes did not have the problems inherent to the production units.

Pennsylvania Railroad T1
T1 prototype 6110 at the Baldwin plant ready for delivery to the PRR
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerRalph P. Johnson[1]
Raymond Loewy[2]
BuilderAltoona Works (5500–5524)
Baldwin Locomotive Works (5525–5549, 6110–6111)
Pennsylvania Railroad T1 Steam Locomotive Trust (5550)[3]
Serial numberAltoona 4560–4584
BLW 72764–72788 (5525–5519)
Build date1942 (6110–6111)
1945–46 (5500–5549)
2014–present (5550)[3]
Total produced52
 • Whyte4-4-4-4
 • UIC2′BB2′
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading dia.36 in (914 mm)
Driver dia.80 in (2,032 mm)
Trailing dia.42 in (1,067 mm)
Wheelbase107 ft 0 in (32.61 m)
Length122 ft 9+34 in (37.43 m)
Width11 ft 1 in (3.38 m)
Height6111: 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)[4]
Axle load71,680 lb (32.51 t)
Adhesive weight279,910 lb (127.0 t)
Loco weight502,200 lb (227.8 t)
Tender weightEmpty: 197,400 lb (89.54 t);
Loaded: 442,500 lb (200.7 t)
Total weight944,700 lb (428.5 t)
Tender type180 P 84
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity85,200 lb (38.65 t)
Water cap.19,200 US gal (73,000 L; 16,000 imp gal)
 • Grate area92 sq ft (8.5 m2)
Boiler100 in (2,540 mm)
Boiler pressure300 lbf/in2 (2.07 MPa)
Heating surface5,639 sq ft (523.9 m2) ​
 • Tubes and flues4,209 sq ft (391.0 m2)
 • Firebox490 sq ft (45.5 m2)
 • TypeType A
 • Heating area1,430 sq ft (132.9 m2)
Cylinder size19.75 in × 26 in (502 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearFranklin poppet
Valve typePoppet valves
Performance figures
Maximum speedover 140 mph (255 km/h)
Power output6,500 ihp (4,800 kW)
Tractive effort64,653 lbf (287.6 kN) (85%)[5]
Factor of adh.4.33
OperatorsPennsylvania Railroad
Number in class52 original, plus 1 under construction[3]
Numbers6110, 6111, 5500-5549, 5550
LocaleWestern Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois
First run1942
DispositionAll 52 original scrapped, 1 new build (PRR 5550) under construction

An article appearing in a 2008 issue of the Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society Magazine showed that inadequate training for engineers transitioning to the T1 may have led to excessive throttle applications, resulting in driver slippage.[7] Another root cause of wheelslip was faulty "spring equalization": The stiffnesses of the springs supporting the locomotive over the axles were not adjusted to properly equalize the wheel-to-track forces.[8] The drivers were equalized together but not equalized with the engine truck. In the production fleet the PRR equalized the engine truck with the front engine and the trailing truck with the rear engine, which helped to solve the wheelslip problem.[9]

Development edit

No. 6110, the "sister" prototype of class T1 prototype No. 6111. Its streamlined casing was designed by renowned industrial designer Raymond Loewy.
A T1 prototype leaving Chicago's Union Station in February 1943 with the Manhattan Limited to New York

Before the T1, the last production express passenger engine the PRR had produced was the K4s of 1914, produced until 1928. Two experimental enlarged K5 locomotives were produced in 1929, but they weren't considered enough of an improvement to be worthwhile. After that, the PRR's attention switched to electrification and the production of electric locomotives; apparently, the railroad decided that it did not need more steam locomotives.

However, the deficiencies of the K4s became more evident during the 1930s. The locomotives performed well, but as train lengths increased they proved to be underpowered; double-headed K4s locomotives became the norm on many trains. The railroad had many locomotives available, but paying two crews on two locomotives per train was expensive. Meanwhile, other railroads were leaping ahead, developing increasingly powerful passenger train locomotives. Rival New York Central built 4-6-4 Hudsons, while other roads developed passenger 4-8-2 "Mountain" type and then 4-8-4 "Northern" type designs. The PRR's steam power began to look outdated.

The PRR began to develop steam locomotives again in the mid-to-late 1930s, but with a difference. Where previous PRR locomotive policy had been conservative, new radical designs took hold. Designers from the Baldwin Locomotive Works, the PRR's longtime development partner, were eager to prove the viability of steam in the face of new competition from diesel-electric locomotives. They persuaded the railroad to adopt Baldwin's latest idea: the duplex locomotive. This split the locomotive's driving wheels into two sets, each with its own pair of cylinders and rods. Until then, the only locomotives with two sets of drivers were articulated locomotives, but the duplex used one rigid frame. In a duplex design cylinders could be smaller, and the weight of side and main rods could be drastically reduced. Given that the movement of the main rod could not be fully balanced, the duplex design would reduce the "hammer blow" on the track. The lower reciprocating mass meant that higher speeds could be achieved. Use of poppet valves also increased the speed because they gave very accurately timed delivery of steam to the cylinders.[citation needed] However, there was a drawback of the metallurgy used; the poppet valve could not withstand the stress of sustained high-speed operation (meaning over 100 mph (160 km/h) on production T1s).[citation needed]

The first PRR duplex was the single experimental S1 No. 6100 of 1939. It managed to reach 100.97 miles per hour (162.50 km/h) on level track while pulling a 1,350-ton passenger train. Its performance encouraged the PRR to continue to develop duplex steam locomotives. The S1 was built unnecessarily large for her exhibition at the 1939 New York World's Fair until October 1940; therefore, its turning radius prohibited it from operating over most of the PRR network. The 6-4-4-6 design reduced driving set traction to the point that it was especially prone to wheel slip[citation needed]; thus only one Class S1 was built. The PRR returned to Baldwin to develop a duplex design fit for series production. The PRR ordered two Baldwin prototypes (Nos.  6110 and 6111) at a cost of $600,000 on June 26, 1940.[10] Both prototypes had numerous teething problems and were prone to wheelslip if not handled carefully by the engineer. But favorable test reports resulted in a production order for 50 T1s, split between the PRR's own Altoona Works and Baldwin. On December 20, 1944, the PRR Board authorized the purchase of 50 Class T1 locomotives for $14,125,000 ($282,500 per unit, equal to $4,696,229 each today). Baldwin's chief designer, Ralph P. Johnson, was responsible for the mechanical aspects of the new T1 class.[1] Designer Raymond Loewy obtained US Patent D 136,260 for an early T1 conceptual design with a high-mounted cab located over the forward driving set.[11] While that suited Baldwin's objective of making the most distinctive steam locomotive possible, practical considerations led the T1 design to be revised to the conventional cab position with a slight modification of the unique nose design included in Loewy's patent.

The last production T1 (no. 5549) entered service on August 27, 1946.[12] Engine no. 5539 developed 5,012 hp (3,737 kW), as tested between September 11, 1946, and September 14, 1946, by Chesapeake and Ohio Railway dynamometer car DM-1 while on loan to C&O.[citation needed] In 1944 no. 6110, tested on the stationary test plant in Altoona, developed 6,550 ihp (4,880 kW) in the cylinders at 85 mph (137 km/h).[13] They also regularly racked up over 8,000 miles a month.[14]

Due to their complexity relative to other steam locomotive designs, the T1s were difficult to maintain. Designed to run reliably at speeds of up to 100 mph (160 km/h), the T1s were so powerful that they could easily exceed their designed load and speed limitations, which in turn caused increased wear and tear, particularly to the 100-mph-limited poppet valves. They were described as "free steaming," meaning they could generally maintain boiler pressure regardless of throttle setting. They were so powerful that violent wheel slip could occur over a wide speed range if the engineer did not handle the throttle carefully; loss of driver traction at high speeds, especially when the T1 was under heavy load while ascending grades, caused damage to the poppet valves. The Franklin Type A valve gear applied to the T1s was designed for continuous speeds at 100 mph, and sprints up to 125 mph. In interviews with historian William L. Withuhn in the 1970s, Franklin engineers Julius Kirchhof and Ray Delano both claimed a Franklin technician charged with determining the cause of frequent poppet valve failures on the T1s saw them operated at speeds of up to 135–142 mph to make up time with short trains of six or seven cars, determining the speed by timing when the train passed mileposts.[15]

Fate edit

When the PRR Board decided to dieselize all first-class prime trains in 1948, most T1s were downgraded to haul secondary trains. Some of them were withdrawn from passenger service in 1949; all were out of service by 1952. They were scrapped between 1951 and 1956.

No. 5550 edit

In 2014, a non-profit group known as The T1 Trust began constructing an all-new, fully operational T1 using the original plans with subtle performance improvements where necessary.[3] The T1 Trust's goal is to provide mainline excursion service. The T1 Trust's cost estimate to build T1 number 5550 is $10 million, with an expected completion date of 2030[3] (This total has since been reduced to a bit more than $7 million, as a used PRR long haul tender has been acquired in lieu of new construction).

The construction of 5550 is also following construction and financing methods pioneered by the LNER Peppercorn Class A1 60163 Tornado project.[16] The first piece of the locomotive, the keystone-shaped number plate, was cast in April, 2014, followed by the first minor component, a driving spring link pin, in October, 2014. Major components completed as of March, 2019 include two Boxpok drivers, the prow, cab, third-course boiler and fire door. Front tube sheet construction was under way by a fabricator in St. Louis, Missouri.[17][needs update]

In media edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b Staufer 1962, p. 217.
  2. ^ Staufer 1962, p. 225.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "FAQ Section - The T1 Trust". The Pennsylvania Railroad T1 Steam Locomotive Trust. 2016. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  4. ^ Reed 1972, p. 271.
  5. ^ Reed 1972, p. 275.
  6. ^ a b Llanso, Steve; Duley, Richard. "Pennsylvania 4-4-4-4, 6-4-4-6, etc. "Duplex Drive" Locomotives of the USA". Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  7. ^ "In Defense of the 5500s", Volume 41, Number 1, Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society Magazine, Spring, 2008
  8. ^ Kerr, Douglas A. (October 16, 2011). "Spring Equalization for Steam Locomotives" (PDF). Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  9. ^ "Pennsy T1 comeback? Ten questions and answers for the T1 Trust", Volume 75, Number 5, Trains Magazine, May 2015.
  10. ^ Baer, Christopher T. "Chronology of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company its Predecessors and Successors - 1940" (PDF). Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  11. ^ "Streamlimed Locomotives of the Swing Era". Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  12. ^ Rivanna Chapter, National Railway Historical Society (2005). "This Month in Railroad History: August". Retrieved 2006-08-25.
  13. ^ Reed 1972, p. 279.
  14. ^ "Pennsylvania Railroad 4-4-4-4 T1 Locomotive". 20 June 2020.
  15. ^ Withuhn, William L. (1 March 2019). American Steam Locomotives: Design and Development, 1880–1960. Indiana University Press. pp. 361–386. ISBN 978-0253039330.
  16. ^ Johnson, Jason; Noble, Bradford (December 2015). "Building from the Rails, Up: The PRR T1 Trust" (PDF). Railfan and Railroad. Swedesboro, NJ: Whiteriver Productions. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  17. ^ "Latest News (March 24, 2019)". The T1 Trust. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  18. ^ Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events - Train Scene

Further reading edit

External links edit