LNER Peppercorn Class A1

London and North Eastern Railway's (LNER) Peppercorn Class A1 was a class of 4-6-2 "Pacific" steam locomotives built between 1948 and 1949 at Doncaster and Darlington Works to a design of Arthur Peppercorn. Forty-nine were built for hauling express passenger services on the East Coast Main Line owned by LNER's successor, British Railways' North Eastern Region. None of the original Peppercorn A1s survived into preservation, with the last being scrapped in 1966. The 50th Peppercorn A1, 60163 Tornado, was completed in 2008 as an evolved member of its class.

LNER Peppercorn Class A1
Steam locomotive with four small carrying wheels at the front, six large driving wheels, two small carrying wheels below the cab, and a tender
60155 Borderer by the coaling stage at Gateshead depot in April 1964
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerArthur Peppercorn
BuilderDoncaster Works
Darlington Works
Build date1948–1949, 2008
Total produced49
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte4-6-2
Leading dia.3 ft 2 in (0.965 m)
Driver dia.6 ft 8 in (2.032 m)
Trailing dia.3 ft 8 in (1.118 m)
Length72 ft 11+34 in (22.24 m)
Width9 ft 2+78 in (2.82 m)
Height13 ft 1 in (3.99 m)
Axle load22.1 long tons (22.5 t; 24.8 short tons)
Adhesive weight66.55 long tons (67.62 t; 74.54 short tons)
Loco weight105.2 long tons (106.9 t; 117.8 short tons)
Tender weight60.9 long tons (61.9 t; 68.2 short tons)
Total weight166.1 long tons (168.8 t; 186.0 short tons)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity9 long tons (9.1 t; 10 short tons)
Water cap.5,000 imp gal (23,000 L; 6,000 US gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
50.0 sq ft (4.65 m2)
BoilerDiagram 118
6 ft 5 in (1.96 m) diameter
29 ft 2 in (8.89 m) length
Boiler pressure250 psi (1,700 kPa)
Heating surface2,461.4 sq ft (228.67 m2)
 • Tubes1,211.6 sq ft (112.56 m2)
 • Flues1,004.5 sq ft (93.32 m2)
 • Firebox245.3 sq ft (22.79 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area697.7 sq ft (64.82 m2)
Cylinders3
Cylinder size19 in × 26 in (483 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Performance figures
Maximum speed100 mph (160 km/h)
Power output2,700 hp (2,000 kW)[citation needed]
Tractive effort37,400 lbf (166 kN)
Career
OperatorsBritish Railways
Power classBR: 8P6F
Number in class49 original, 1 completed in 2008
Numbers60114–60162, 60163
LocaleNorth Eastern Region
First runAugust 1948
Last runJune 1966
WithdrawnOctober 1962–June 1966
DispositionOriginal 49 withdrawn and scrapped, 1 built in 2008 and Mainline Registered
60133 Pommern passing Leeds-Holbeck High Level Station hauling Leeds Central to Kings Cross Yorkshire Pullman
60131 Osprey at Leeds Neville Hill locomotive shed on 18 April 1965

BackgroundEdit

Most of the former LNER Class A1 locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley had been rebuilt as LNER Class A3 locomotives prior to this class being conceived. The few straggling LNER Class A1 locomotives that remained unrebuilt during the tenure of Peppercorn's predecessor, Edward Thompson, were redesignated by him as Class A10s in preparation for the construction of his new Class A1 locomotives. Thompson rebuilt the pioneer LNER Pacific Great Northern in 1945; originally this was the new Class A1, but the rebuild was not repeated. Instead, initiated by Thompson but largely taken forward by his successor Arthur Peppercorn, Great Northern was designated Class A1/1, and a new class of Peppercorn A1s ordered.

The locomotives were designed to cope with the heaviest passenger trains in the post-war period on the East Coast Main Line (LondonYorkNewcastleEdinburghAberdeen) which consisted normally of trains with up to 15 coaches and up to 550 tons. The Peppercorn A1s were able to pull such a train on the flat at a speed of 60–70 mph (95-110 km/h). The class used a double Kylchap chimney system and, like previous LNER Pacifics, had a 3-cylinder arrangement.

Original locomotivesEdit

ConstructionEdit

The new A1s were ordered by the LNER but were delivered after the LNER had been nationalised to form part of British Railways at the start of 1948. The 49 engines were built at the Eastern Region's Doncaster and Darlington works between 1948 and 1949.

Construction details
Nos Date built Works Order no.[1] Notes
60114-22 1948 Doncaster 382
60123 1949 Doncaster
60124-9 1949 Doncaster 383
60130-43 1948 Darlington
60144-52 1949 Darlington
60153-7 1949 Doncaster 388 Built with Timken roller bearings on all axles
60158-62 1949 Doncaster

WithdrawalEdit

By summer of 1966, all 49 class members had gone for scrap. The last to be withdrawn from stock was No. 60145 Saint Mungo, after a working life of just 17 years. 60145 Saint Mungo was planned to be preserved by Geoff Drury; however, this ultimately was unsuccessful and none of the original locomotives were preserved. [2]

Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Quantity
withdrawn
Locomotive numbers Notes
1962 49 6 60115/22–23/35/37/53
1963 43 6 60136/44/59–62
1964 37 11 60114/19–20/25/39/41/43/47/49–50/58
1965 26 24 60116–18/21/26–34/38/40/42/46/48/51–52/54–57
1966 2 2 60124/45 60145 was subject to preservation attempt.

List of original locomotivesEdit

Below is a list of original Peppercorn A1 Locomotives[3][4][5][6][page needed][7][page needed][8][9]

No. Name Built Works Withdrawn Notes
60114 AllenW. P. Allen August 1948 Doncaster December 1964
60115 Meg Merrilies September 1948 Doncaster November 1962
60116 Hal o' the Wynd October 1948 Doncaster June 1965
60117 Bois Roussel October 1948 Doncaster June 1965
60118 SturrockArchibald Sturrock November 1948 Doncaster October 1965
60119 StirlingPatrick Stirling November 1948 Doncaster May 1964
60120 Kittiwake December 1948 Doncaster January 1964
60121 Silurian December 1948 Doncaster October 1965
60122 Curlew December 1948 Doncaster December 1962
60123 IvattH.A. Ivatt February 1949 Doncaster October 1962
60124 Kenilworth March 1949 Doncaster March 1966
60125 Scottish Union April 1949 Doncaster July 1964
60126 RavenSir Vincent Raven April 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60127 WorsdellWilson Worsdell May 1949 Doncaster June 1965
60128 Bongrace May 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60129 ManneringGuy Mannering June 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60130 Kestrel September 1948 Darlington October 1965
60131 Osprey October 1948 Darlington October 1965
60132 Marmion October 1948 Darlington June 1965
60133 Pommern October 1948 Darlington June 1965
60134 Foxhunter November 1948 Darlington October 1965
60135 Madge Wildfire November 1948 Darlington November 1962
60136 Alcazar November 1948 Darlington May 1963
60137 Redgauntlet December 1948 Darlington October 1962
60138 Boswell December 1948 Darlington October 1965
60139 Sea Eagle December 1948 Darlington June 1964
60140 Balmoral December 1948 Darlington January 1965
60141 Abbotsford December 1948 Darlington October 1964
60142 FletcherEdward Fletcher February 1949 Darlington June 1965
60143 ScottSir Walter Scott February 1949 Darlington May 1964
60144 King's Courier March 1949 Darlington April 1963
60145 Saint Mungo March 1949 Darlington June 1966 Preservation attempt failed
60146 Peregrine April 1949 Darlington October 1965
60147 North Eastern April 1949 Darlington August 1964
60148 Aboyeur May 1949 Darlington June 1965
60149 Amadis May 1949 Darlington June 1964
60150 Willbrook June 1949 Darlington October 1964
60151 Midlothian June 1949 Darlington November 1965
60152 Holyrood July 1949 Darlington June 1965
60153 Flamboyant August 1949 Doncaster November 1962
60154 Bon Accord September 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60155 Borderer September 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60156 Great Central October 1949 Doncaster May 1965
60157 Great Eastern November 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60158 Aberdonian November 1949 Doncaster December 1964
60159 Bonnie Dundee November 1949 Doncaster October 1963
60160 Auld Reekie December 1949 Doncaster December 1963
60161 North British December 1949 Doncaster October 1963
60162 Saint Johnstoun December 1949 Doncaster October 1963

Notes on namesEdit

The names of the A1s[10] were an eclectic mix including:

  • Racehorses: Bois Roussel, Silurian, Scottish Union, Bongrace, Pommern, Foxhunter, Alcazar, Boswell, King's Courier, Aboyeur, Amadis, Willbrook, Flamboyant
  • Names of people: W. P. Allen (an LNER locomotive driver who became a member of the Railway Executive in 1948), Archibald Sturrock, Patrick Stirling, H. A. Ivatt, Sir Vincent Raven, Wilson Worsdell, Edward Fletcher (Locomotive Superintendents of pre-grouping railways), Sir Walter Scott, Saint Mungo
  • Names related to the works of Sir Walter Scott: Meg Merrilies, Hal o’ the Wynd, Kenilworth, Guy Mannering, Marmion, Borderer, Madge Wildfire, Redgauntlet, Bonnie Dundee. Some of these names had previously been used on NBR J class locomotives
  • Pre-grouping railway companies: North Eastern, Great Central, Great Eastern, North British
  • Birds: Kittiwake, Curlew, Kestrel, Osprey, Sea Eagle, Peregrine
  • Place-related names: Balmoral, Abbotsford (Sir Walter Scott's house), Midlothian, Holyrood, Bon Accord (motto of Aberdeen), Auld Reekie (a soubriquet for Edinburgh), Saint Johnstoun (an old name for Perth), Aberdonian

No. 60163 TornadoEdit

 
60163 Tornado, August 2008, Darlington

None of the original production run of 49 Peppercorn A1s survived the scrapyard to be preserved. However, in 2008, a brand new 50th A1 based on the original Peppercorn patterns, 60163 Tornado, was completed as the evolved member of the class.[11]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • On 5 June 1950, locomotive No. 60153 Flamboyant was hauling an express passenger train which was derailed at Tollerton, North Yorkshire due to heat buckled track.[12]
  • On 7 September 1962, No. 60123 H.A. Ivatt suffered harsh collision damage after running into a train at Offord. Four people were injured in the incident. It was withdrawn a month later and scrapped at Doncaster.[13][14][15]
  • On 16 January 1964, No. 60120 Kittiwake collided with the rear end of a goods train in North Otterington. It was shortly withdrawn after the incident.[16]
  • On 14 April 2018, locomotive No. 60163 Tornado was hauling an excursion train named "The Ebor Flyer" from London King's Cross to York. While traveling at 90mph around Sandy, south of Peterborough, the locomotive's inside motion failed.[17][18]

ModelsEdit

Bachmann Branchline and Hornby make models in OO gauge, Graham Farish produce a model in N gauge and Accucraft (UK) make a live steam model in Gauge 1.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Boddy, Neve & Yeadon 1973, p. 193
  2. ^ "60145 - Saint Mungo". A1 Steam. A1 Steam.
  3. ^ "The Peppercorn A1 Pacifics". LNER Encyclopedia.
  4. ^ Longworth[full citation needed] (not including Tornado)
  5. ^ "Class Details". Railuk database. (not including Tornado)
  6. ^ Boddy, Neve & Yeadon 1973 (not including Tornado)
  7. ^ Yeadon 1991 (not including Tornado)
  8. ^ A1LST history section[full citation needed] (not including Tornado)
  9. ^ Ian Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, part 4 (Summer 1961 ed.). pp. 26–27. Names of 60114-60162 are given but it also includes the LNER Thompson Class A1/1 60113 Great Northern in the list, making 50 locomotives.
  10. ^ "Names of A1s". 60163 Tornado. A1 Steam Locomotive Trust. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009.
  11. ^ "New steam loco ready for service". BBC News. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. The first new steam engine to be built in the UK for almost 50 years is ready for service after successfully completing all its trial runs ... Tornado, a Peppercorn class A1 Pacific steam locomotive ...
  12. ^ Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-906899-03-6.
  13. ^ "A1 60113 – 60162 4-6-2 LNER & BR Thompson & Peppercorn". Preserved British Steam Locomotives. WordPress. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  14. ^ Champion, Phil; Langer, Graham (3 February 2010). "No. 60123 H.A. Ivatt". The A1 Steam Locomotive Trust. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  15. ^ "Demise of the A1s". The A1 Steam Locomotive Trust. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  16. ^ Champion, Phil; Whittaker, T.D.; Langer, Graham (3 February 2010). "No. 60120 Kittiwake". The A1 Steam Locomotive Trust. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  17. ^ https://www.a1steam.com/2018/04/14/the-ebor-flyer-update/ Tornado motion failure
  18. ^ https://www.a1steam.com/2018/04/17/tornado-repair-update/ Repairs update
  • Boddy, M. G.; Neve, E.; Yeadon, W. B. (April 1973). Fry, E. V. (ed.). Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., Part 2A: Tender Engines—Classes A1 to A10. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-25-8.
  • Yeadon, W. B. (1991). Yeadon's Register of LNER Locomotives, Volume 3: Raven, Thompson and Peppercorn Pacifics. Irwell Press.

External linksEdit