Order of the Double Dragon
The Imperial Order of the Double Dragon (simplified Chinese: 双龙宝星; traditional Chinese: 雙龍寶星; pinyin: Shuānglóng Bǎoxīng; literally: 'Double Dragon Precious Star') was an order awarded in the late Qing dynasty.
|Imperial Order of the Double Dragon|
Order of the Double Dragon, 1st Class
|Awarded by the Emperor of China|
|Awarded for||outstanding services to the throne and the Qing court|
|Next (higher)||Order of the Blue Plume|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Imperial Throne|
Ribbon bar of the order (1st Class, 1st Grade)
The Order was founded by the Guangxu Emperor on 7 February 1882 as an award for outstanding services to the throne and the Qing court. Originally it was awarded only to foreigners but was extended to Chinese subjects from 1908. It was the first Western-style Chinese order, established in the wake of the Second Opium War as part of efforts to engage with the West and adopt Western-style diplomatic practices. Traditionally the Chinese court did not have an honours system in the Western sense; however hat buttons, rank badges, feathers and plumes were routinely awarded by the Emperor to subjects and foreigners alike prior to and after the introduction of the Order of the Double Dragon. The order was replaced in 1911 during the last days of the Qing dynasty by the Grand Order of the Throne, although this replacement was never fully implemented and the Republic of China discontinued the imperial orders after its establishment in 1912.
The order took on many different designs and forms until its abolition in 1911. Gradations were distinguished most commonly by differentiation in the type and size of precious stones inlaid, the shape of the medallion, the length of the ribbon, and the material used to construct the medallion. Gold and pearl were reserved for the higher classes, enamel and coral for the lowest classes. The original designs were similar in style and appearance to traditional Chinese insignia, but they proved cumbersome for many to wear and in 1897 they were redesigned in the form of a Western-style breast-badge, although the original designs were still awarded for some time afterwards. Similar symbolic motifs accompanied all designs over the award's history, most notably two dragons surrounding a central precious stone and flames which were connotative symbols of imperial authority. Other symbols of imperial authority - mountains, clouds, plum blossoms and characters with providential meanings - were added to variations of the designs over time.
The order consisted of five classes, the first three of which were divided into three grades. The rules for award and the nature of the gradations was set out in the statues establishing the award in 1882. The rules were modified somewhat in 1897.
- First Class, First Grade: for emperors and kings of foreign nations
- First Class, Second Grade: for princes, and royal family members and relatives (later limited to royal family members who had earned, and not inherited, senior positions in government)
- First Class, Third Grade: for ministers of who had inherited their position, general ministers, and diplomatic envoys of the first rank.
- Second Class, First Grade: for diplomatic envoys of the second rank
- Second Class, Second Grade: for diplomatic envoys of the third rank and customs commissioners 
- Second Class, Third Grade: for counselors of the first rank, consul-generals and military generals
- Third Class, First Grade: for counselors of the second and third rank, the entourage of consul-generals, and second-tier military officers 
- Third Class, Second Grade: for deputy consuls, and third-tier military officers
- Third Class, Third Grade: for translators and military officers of the fourth and fifth tiers
- Fourth Class: for soldiers and non-commissioned officers
- Fifth Class: for businessmen and traders
Despite the comprehensive ranking system, the actual awarding of the classes was lopsided, and very few Fourth or Fifth class were ever given. The much higher ranking of translators and other civil servants in the system compared to even the wealthiest Western industrialists and businessmen was in part reflecting of the traditional Chinese antipathy towards profit-seeking and commercial individuals, compared the honourability accorded to civil service. Despite patriarchal traditions however, foreign women were bestowed the order, including Canadian missionary Dr Leonora King and American artist Katherine Carl. Native Chinese were granted the right to order in 1908, but very few Chinese ever received the award and it remained an overwhelmingly internationally-awarded order.
Awards to the Imperial FamilyEdit
- Susuhunan Pakubuwono X Monarch of Surakarta
- Czar Nicholas II of Russia
- Frederick III, German Emperor
- Henry, Prince of Prussia
- Prince Georg of Bavaria
- Eitel Friedrich, Prince of Prussia
- Wilhelm, German Crown Prince
- Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia
- Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten
- Baron Jules de Trooz
- Baron Edmond de Gaiffier d'Hestroy
- Major General Charles George Gordon
- Albert I of Belgium
- Gojong of Korea
- Halliday Macartney
- Okura Kihachiro
- Wu Lien-teh
- Paul von Buri
- Georg von der Marwitz
- Cardinal Desire Mercier
- Dejan Subotić
- Abu Bakar of Johor
- Dr. Leonora King
- Richard Theodore Greener, United States, 1902.
- Sir Halliday Macartney, United Kingdom, Secretary to the Chinese Legation in London - Second Class, First Grade, 1902
- Robert Bredon, United Kingdom, Deputy Inspector-general of Customs at Shanghai – Second Class, Third Grade, 1902
- John Penniell, United Kingdom, Chief Instructor at the Nanking Naval College – Third Class, Second Grade, 1902
- John Edward Foley, United Kingdom, Traffic Manager of the Imperial Chinese Railways – Second Class, Third Grade, 1902
- Porfirio Díaz, Mexico.
- Baron Julien Liebaert.
- Claude William Kinder CMG, United Kingdom, Chief Engineer Imperial Railways of North China - 1st class, Third Grade, 1891. 
- Victor Vifquain, United States
- Erich Raeder, Germany, 10 October 1898 (3rd class, 2nd Level)
- Thomas Adamson Consul General, United States of America 
Notes and referencesEdit
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2009-09-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. pp. 25–29. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- "Classification of the Qing Dynasty Double Dragon Orders". Chinese Medal Blog. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- "83: Order of the Double Dragon on LiveAuctioneers". LiveAuctioneers.com. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "84: Order of the Double Dragon on LiveAuctioneers". LiveAuctioneers.com. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Medal - CHINA - ORDER OF THE DOUBLE DRAGON". iCollector.com. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Goh, Gavin (2012). The Order of the Double Dragon: Imperial China's Highest Western Style Honour, 1882-1912. Sydney: Gavin Goh. pp. 17–20. ISBN 978-0-646577807.
- Royal Ark
- Royal Ark
- Leshell Hatley (2010-08-26). "Richard T. Greener: 1st Black Graduate of Harvard University". The Black Scholars Index. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Court Circular". The Times (36773). London. 21 May 1902. p. 9.
- "No. 27471". The London Gazette. 5 September 1902. p. 5751.
- "No. 27429". The London Gazette. 29 April 1902. p. 2860.
- Peter Crush : Imperial Railways of North China ISBN 978-7-5166-0564-6, Beijing 2013,
- Morton, Julius (1907). Illustrated history of Nebraska: a history of Nebraska from the earliest explorations of the trans-Mississippi region, Volume 1. Nebraska: J. North & Company. p. 430.
- "THOMAS ADAMSON HONORED; MADE A MEMBER OF THE ORDER OF THE DOUBLE DRAGON. For More than Thirty Years in the Consular Service of the United States -- Began His Career During the Civil War at Pernambaco, Brazil -- Afterward Sent to Honolulu, Where He Rendered Valuable Services to This Country". Nytimes.com. 13 May 1894. Retrieved 14 February 2019.