The Okarito kiwi (Apteryx rowi), also known as the rowi or Okarito brown kiwi, is a member of the kiwi family Apterygidae, described as new to science in 2003.[3] The species is part of the brown kiwi complex, and is morphologically very similar to other members of that complex. It is found in a restricted area of the Ōkārito forest on the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island,[4] and has a population of only about 600 birds.[5]

Okarito kiwi
Adult Okarito kiwi
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Palaeognathae
Order: Apterygiformes
Family: Apterygidae
Genus: Apteryx
A. rowi
Binomial name
Apteryx rowi
Tennyson et al. 2003[2]
  • Apteryx rowi Burbidge et al. 2003 nomen nudum
  • Apteryx rowi Marsh 2003 nomen nudum

Taxonomy edit

The Okarito kiwi is a monotypic species, i.e. there are no recognised subspecies.[4] The genus name Apteryx stems from the Greek "without wings".[6] Originally assumed to be the same species as the Southern brown kiwi A. australis, DNA testing shows that the possible split off from this species was 8.2 million years ago, and the split from their closest relatives, the Northern Island brown kiwi A. mantelli was around 6.2 million years ago.[7] This bird is a ratite and has similarities to the others (emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary). Its sternum has no keel, its wings are minimal, and it has no preen gland. Its palate is also distinctive, and its feathers have no barbules or aftershaft. Other features that are similar to only the other kiwi is a weak gizzard and no tail, only a pygostyle.[8]

Range and habitat edit

The Okarito brown kiwi lives in the Okarito forest on the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island.[4][9] On 29 June 2010, three breeding pairs were released onto Blumine Island as part of a breeding programme.[10] A new population was established in the Omoeroa Ranges near Fox Glacier in late 2018.[11] In 2021 signs of Rowi were detected in Ballyhooly Bush, remnant mataī forest on the Lower Whataroa River flats, 24 km from Ōkārito forest.[12]

Reproduction edit

The female can lay up to three eggs, each in a different nest. Both the male and the female incubate the eggs. The egg is very large, as it weighs 20% of the female's weight (as in all kiwi). Most pairs are monogamous throughout their lives.[9]

The West Coast Wildlife Centre, at Franz Josef, is part of Project Nest Egg, breeding rowi.

Status and conservation edit

The Okarito kiwi is currently classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN due to habitat loss and predation by introduced stoats.[1] Conservation efforts such as Operation Nest Egg and the stoat control regime have been partially successful in restoring the rowi population. However, the rowi is still in a fragile stage of existence. Predation, mainly from imported animals such as stoats, is still the biggest threat to the rowi. The South Okarito Forest was designated a kiwi sanctuary in 2000.[9]

The West Coast Wildlife Centre in Franz Josef village operates a conservation programme as part of Operation Nest Egg. Eggs at risk of predation are removed, the chicks hatched in captivity, raised in a natural predator-free environment until old enough to fend for themselves, and then returned to the wild. The operation opened in 2010 and has been responsible for raising the wild population of rowi from just 165 ageing adults in the 1990s to 600 as of 2019.[13] Surveys have ensured that there is no noticeable difference in behaviour between such birds and rowi growing up fully in the wild. The Wildlife Centre is the only place in New Zealand where one can see rowi in a nocturnal walkthrough area.[14]

References edit

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2017). "Apteryx rowi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22732871A119169794. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22732871A119169794.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  2. ^ Gill; et al. (2010). "Checklist of the birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica" (PDF) (4th ed.). Te Papa Press. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  3. ^ Tennyson, A.J.D.; Palma, R.L.; Robertson, H.A.; Worthy, T.H.; Gill, B.J. (2003). "A new species of kiwi (Aves, Apterygiformes) from Okarito, New Zealand". Records of the Auckland Museum. 40: 55–64.
  4. ^ a b c Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6th ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
  5. ^ Mills, Laura (13 December 2018). "Rare rowi kiwi to be released in Westland". Otago Daily Times Online News. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  6. ^ Gotch, A.F. (1995) [1979]. "Kiwis". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. London: Facts on File. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8160-3377-5.
  7. ^ Brewer, David (2018). Birds New to Science: Fifty Years of Avian Discovery. London: Christopher Helm. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4729-0628-1.
  8. ^ Davies, S.J.J.F. (2003). "Kiwis". In Hutchins, Michael (ed.). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8. Vol. Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0-7876-5784-0.
  9. ^ a b c New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC) (2013). "Rowi: New Zealand native land birds". New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC). Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  10. ^ "Kiwi released on Blumine Island". The Marlborough Express. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  11. ^ Naish, Joanne (2 September 2021). "New chick a sign of hope for rarest kiwi". The Press. p. 9.
  12. ^ "Rare kiwi found at Whataroa". Greymouth Star. 25 August 2021. p. 1.
  13. ^ Waterworth, Kerrie (9 February 2018). "Rescuing rowi". Greymouth Star. p. 8.
  14. ^ Anna Turner (20 July 2012). "Influx of kiwi eggs forces centre expansion". The Press. Retrieved 19 March 2015.

External links edit