Odysseas Androutsos

Odysseas Androutsos (Greek: Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος; 1788 – 1825; born Odysseas Verousis Greek: Οδυσσέας Βερούσης) was a Greek military and political commander in eastern mainland Greece and a prominent figure of the Greek War of Independence.[2][3][4][5][6]

Odysseas Androutsos
Odysseas-androutsos.jpg
Portrait by Dionysios Tsokos
Native name
Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος
Birth nameOdysseas Verousis (Οδυσσέας Βερούσης)
Nickname(s)Lysseos (Λυσσέος)
Bornc. 1788[1]
Ithaca or Preveza, Republic of Venice (now Greece)
Died5 June 1825 (aged 37)
Frankish Tower, Athens, First Hellenic Republic
Buried
Base of the north side of the Acropolis (1825–1865)
First Cemetery of Athens (1865–1967)
Central square of Preveza (1967–present)
AllegianceFirst Hellenic Republic
Service/branch
Commands heldCommander-in-Chief of Central Greece
Battles/warsGreek War of Independence Executed
Spouse(s)Eleni Kareli
ChildrenLeonidas Androutsos
RelationsAndreas Verousis (father)
Akrivi Tsarlampa (mother)
Lambros Katsonis (godfather)

He grew up in the court of Ali Pasha of Tepelena and was one of his commanders. In 1818 he joined the Greek revolutionary organization Filiki Eteria.[7][8][9] After Ali Pasha's defeat, he joined the Greek War of Independence and was distinguished as a commander in the Battle of Gravia Inn in 1821. As a result of the battle, he was appointed military commander of eastern mainland Greece by the Greek revolutionary government. In 1825, after falling out with the rebels, he asked for amnesty from the Imperial court and joined the Ottomans. In a battle near Livadeia, he was captured by the units of the revolutionary army and executed a few days later. Scholars have variously described him as a hero or a traitor to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence.[10][2][11][12] In Greece he is today considered one of the most prominent heroes of the Greek War of Independence, particularly among the left.

Early lifeEdit

He was born in Ithaca in 1788, his family was from the village of Livanates in Phthiotis prefecture. Androutsos was an Arvanite.[13] His father was Andreas Verousis, a klepht from Livanates, while his mother, Akrivi Tsarlampa was from Preveza.[14]

Ali Pasha eraEdit

After losing his father, Androutsos was taken by Ali Pasha in Ioannina and later became an officer.[15] In Ali's court Androutsos became one of his distinguished Greek military commanders.[16][17] He also managed to learn Arvanitika and Italian fluently.[18] Androutsos was soon found in antagonism with Ali's men, as such Ali had ordered his execution but was saved after intervention by Alexis Noutsos.[18] Ali Pasha positioned him as armatolos of Livadeia in eastern central Greece in 1816. In 1818 he became a member of the Filiki Eteria with Athanasios Diakos, an organisation that aimed at the independence of Greece.[19] In 1820, in a local factional dispute he lost his position to Athanasios Diakos.[20] In late 1820, the Ottomans sent an army to remove Ali Pasha from power in Yannina. Androutsos who was involved with the upcoming Greek War of Independence met on 1 September 1820 with Albanian commanders from Ali Pasha's court who had defected to the Ottomans – including Omer Vrioni, Ali Pasha's steward. He condemned their betrayal of Ali Pasha and after negotiations they all signed an agreement, which stipulated that in the upcoming revolt in Greece they would not send their troops against the rebels, but revolt in favor of Ali Pasha.[21]

Greek RevolutionEdit

 
Gravia Inn
 
Depiction of the Battle of the Inn of Gravia by Panagiotis Zographos
 
Androutsos by Adam Friedel

In May 1821, Omer Vrioni, now the commander of the Ottoman army, advanced with 8,000 men, after crushing the resistance of the Greeks at the river of Alamana and putting Athanasios Diakos to death, headed south into the Peloponnese to crush the Greek uprising.[22]

Odysseas Androutsos with a band of 100 or so men took up a defensive position at an inn near Gravia, supported by Panourgias and Diovouniotis and their men. Vrioni attacked the inn but was repulsed with heavy casualties of over 300 dead. Finally, he was forced to ask for reinforcements and artillery, but the Greeks managed to slip out before the reinforcements arrived. Androutsos lost six men in the battle and earned the title of Commander in Chief of the Greek forces in Central Greece.[23]

Androutsos sought to establish his power base in Attica and Euboea and sent his bands to the region in 1822. In April 1822, Androutsos, in cooperation with other revolutionary leaders, attempted to thwart Dramali’s expedition in Phthiotis.[24] His plan failed, however, because the Greek Government did not provide him with the war supplies that he had requested. Androutsos’s failure in Phthiotis was used as a pretext by the Government to degrade him, and two other revolutionaries, Christos Palaskas and Alexios Noutsos, were sent to replace him.[25] Palaskas was to relieve him of the military command and Noutsos was to take over the taxation apparatus, but Androutsos had both men killed.[26] The regional assembly, fearing for their lives, fled to other areas and the army of Dramali passed through his area of command virtually untouched. In the consequent clash with his political opponent Ioannis Kolettis and the Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece, he was accused of collaboration with the Ottomans and the government dismissed him from his commanding duties. However, he was soon restored and kept his command in Eastern Central Greece. In September 1822, at the insistence of the Athenian municipal authorities, Androutsos, Yannis Gouras, and Yannis Makriyannis took control of the Acropolis of Athens, which had been surrendered in June. To ensure the occupation he had a bastion built to protect the ancient Klepsydra spring, which had just been rediscovered by chance on the north-western slope of the rock.[27] Androutsos made himself general-in-chief of Attica, and sent his men to plunder the wealthy villages of the region.[28]

In late 1822 Androutsos contacted the Ottomans and offered to sign a secret agreement under which he would recognize their authority if they gave him a hereditary title of armatoliki. Androutsos (referred to as Disava in Ottoman sources of his era)[20] explained his position in a letter to the Ottoman government in November 1822, where he presented the Greek revolt not as a national revolution, but as the result of social grievances which could be resolved if he was to be appointed to the right position.[29] In his letters to the Greek chieftains and to the kodjabashis of Hydra, however, Androutsos claimed that the agreements made with the Ottomans were a ruse so that the revolutionaries would have time to transfer their people to more secure areas.[30] In a letter to Demetrios Ypsilantis, the president of the Greek Legislative Corps, Androutsos also reports that he attempted to lure the Ottomans under the command of Köse Mehmed Pasha into a trap, to no avail.[31] Eventually, Odysseas Androutsos completely paralyzed Köse Mehmed's operations in Central Greece.[32]

DownfallEdit

In early 1825, as the Greek Government still wanted to take the command and replace him, Androutsos, in anger,[33] began a correspondence with Omer Pasha of Karystos, offering to hand over the Acropolis if aided by Ottoman troops and placed in control of the districts of Livadia, Thebes, and Atalanti. Though the terms of their agreement are not preserved in Ottoman archives, Androutsos was sent a firman granting him amnesty on 31 March. In the following days, the locals from Livadeia, Thebes, and Atalanti asked for amnesty from the court.[20] He joined forces with the Ottoman army to defend the villages around Livadia. After promised reinforcements failed to arrive, he wanted to retreat towards Megara but was captured by Greek insurgents.[34]

The provisional government accused Androutsos of collaboration with the Ottomans and imprisoned him in the Frankish Tower of the Acropolis of Athens. He was not given a trial due to the belief that his democratic character could turn the people against the government.[35]

Once he was imprisoned, Androutsos was tortured and ultimately executed.[20] The execution came at the order of Ioannis Gouras, who was once Androutsos' second in command. His execution took place on 5 June 1825 and was carried out by Ioannis Mamouris and two others. This treatment by Gouras is often viewed negatively.[36] Androutsos' body was thrown from the Acropolis and was buried at its base on the north side.

Androutsos' sister Tersitsa married Edward John Trelawny, who had commanded Androutsos' forces in his absence.[37]

LegacyEdit

 
Monument to Androutsos in Gravia

Androutsos is listed among the main Greek military figures and heroes of the Greek war of Independence.[38][10] Some scholars have described him as a traitor to the Greek cause in the Greek War of Independence.[11][12] Among those who lived in the same period, Edward Trelawny who was married to his half-sister presents him as a noble figure, while Thomas Gordon calls him a "physically imposing man" who was "bloodthirsty, vindictive and as treacherous as an Arnaut" and "guilty of barbarious acts".[39][26] Roessel says that through his connection with Trelawny, the traitor Androutsos became in England a hero of the Greek War of Independence.[40] G. Finlay added that "his ambition was to ape the tyranny of Ali in a small sphere" and describes him also as "Odysseus, a partisan of Ali's".[39] Finlay called Androutsos' agreement with the Ottomans "the most celebrated instance of trachery among the Greeks during their Revolution".[40] Many klephts, such as Androutsos, fought only when it suited them. As a matter of policy, they also made negotiations and temporary agreements with the enemy. Moreover, long-lasting negotiations with the Ottomans, that were conducted by Androutsos and many other chieftains during the revolution, had benefited the Greek struggle multiple times, since the negotiations were providing the revolutionaries enough time to rally troops and, later, fight and defeat their enemies in numerous engagements.[41] Androutsos's actions were not treasonous to the infant Greek nation, because the notion of nationhood was not known to them.[42] Androutsos has been held up as a symbol of innate Greek values and freedom, in particular by the Greek left wing.[43]

In 1865, his body was recovered from the base of the Acropolis and given a proper funeral at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. He was buried in the First Cemetery of Athens, where he remained for just over a century. On 15 July 1967, his bones were moved to an ossuary beneath a statue of himself in the central square of Preveza.

The soccer team of the town of Gravia, Odysseas Androutsos F.C. is named after him, as is the cultural association of his ancestral village of Livanates.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 12.
  2. ^ a b John S. Koliopoulos; Thanos M. Veremis (27 October 2009). Modern Greece: A History since 1821. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-4443-1483-0. OCLC 1037469979.
  3. ^ Nigel Patten (8 June 2021). Byron: A Play in Three Acts. Strategic Book Publishing & Rights Agency. ISBN 978-1-68235-455-1. OCLC 1258219244.
  4. ^ Philip de Souza (19 May 2013). Christopher Matthew; Matthew Trundle (eds.). Beyond the Gates of Fire: New Perspectives on the Battle of Thermopylae. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78346-910-9. OCLC 1047705748.
  5. ^ Thomas W Gallant (21 January 2015). Edinburgh History of the Greeks, 1768 to 1913. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-3607-5. OCLC 1062180277.
  6. ^ Ian F. W. Beckett (26 July 2001). Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerrillas and their Opponents since 1750. Routledge. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-134-55394-5.
  7. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): pp. 13.
  8. ^ Ioanna Diamantourou (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 113–115. ISBN 978-960-213-108-4.
  9. ^ Kalliopi Fouseki; Torgrim Sneve Guttormsen; Grete Swensen, eds. (25 July 2019). Heritage and Sustainable Urban Transformations: Deep Cities. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-87099-6.
  10. ^ a b Thomopoulos, Elaine (2012). The History of Greece. ABC-CLIO. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-313-37511-8. Heroes of the Greek Revolution. Here is a partial list of the heroes. Odysseas Androutsos
  11. ^ a b Stavrou, Theofanis (1985). Modern Greek Studies Yearbook. University of Minnesota. p. 97. That Odysseus Androutsos ended his days less a hero than a traitor is simply ignored
  12. ^ a b Koliopoulos, G.; Veremēs, T. (2002). Greece: The Modern Sequel : from 1831 to the Present. Hurst. p. 214.
  13. ^ Magliveras, Simeon (2009). The ontology of difference: nationalism, localism and ethnicity in a Greek Arvanite village (PDF) (Thesis). Durham University. p. 55.
  14. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 14.
  15. ^ Η μάχη της Γραβιάς
  16. ^ Gallant, Thomas W. (21 January 2015). Edinburgh History of the Greeks, 1768 to 1913. Edinburgh University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7486-3607-5. His top military commanders were men like the Muslim Omar Vryonis from Berat and the Greek Odysseus Androutsos
  17. ^ Beckett, Ian F. W. (26 July 2001). Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies: Guerrillas and their Opponents since 1750. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-134-55394-5. Many of the best Greek military commanders, such as Odysseus Androutsos and George Karaiskakis, had served as armatulai under Ali Pasha,
  18. ^ a b Georgiou, Menelaidou. "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος – IKEE / Aristotle University of Thessaloniki – Library". ikee.lib.auth.gr. p. 26. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  19. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): pp. 13–14.
  20. ^ a b c d Ilıcak 2021, pp. 1649–1650
  21. ^ Ilıcak 2021, p. 17.
  22. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 17.
  23. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 17.
  24. ^ Sfyroeras, Vasileios (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 224–225.
  25. ^ Sfyroeras, Vasileios (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 225–226.
  26. ^ a b Mazower 2021, p. 139
  27. ^ AL. N. Œkonomides. L'Acropole d'Athenes. Editions K. Gouvoussis, p. 21
  28. ^ Mazower 2021, pp. 139–140
  29. ^ Mazower 2021, p. 140.
  30. ^ Sfyroeras, Vasileios (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 266–267.
  31. ^ Sfyroeras, Vasileios (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 267.
  32. ^ "Those Infidel Greeks": the Greek War of Independence through Ottoman Archival Documents. Edited by H. Şükrü Ilıcak. Leiden: Brill, 2021, pages 1653–1654.
  33. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 17.
  34. ^ H. Sukru Ilicak, "Revolutionary Athens Through Ottoman Eyes", in Georgopoulou, M. and Thanasakis, K. [eds.], Ottoman Athens: Archaeology, Topography, History, (Athens 2019), pp.249–252.
  35. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 23.
  36. ^ Deligiannis, Periklis (2009). "Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος : Η μάχη της Γραβιάς (8 Μαϊου 1821)" [Odysseas Androutsos : The battle of Gravia (8 May 1821)]. Στρατιωτική Ιστορία ("Military History") (in Greek). Περισκόπιο ("Periskopio") (151): 23.
  37. ^ Trelawny, Edward John (1 August 2013). Records of Shelley, Byron and the Author. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-139279-0. An incorrigible romancer Trelawny had three marriages — the second of which was to Tersitza, sister of the Greek warlord Odysseus Androutsos, whose cause he had joined and whose mountain fortress he looked after when Odysseus was arrested.
  38. ^ Koliopoulos, John S.; Veremis, Thanos M. (27 October 2009). Modern Greece: A History since 1821. John Wiley & Sons. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4443-1483-0. ...so did the feats of Greek heroes. Theodoros Kolokotronis, Markos Botsaris, Odysseas Androutsos, Kitsos Tzavelas, and other freedom warriors became the heroes of a West lacking at the time similar heroes of its own.
  39. ^ a b Kitromilides 2021, p. 309
  40. ^ a b Roessel, D.E. (2002). In Byron's Shadow: Modern Greece in the English & American Imagination. Oxford paperbacks. Oxford University Press. p. 58.
  41. ^ Sfyroeras, Vasileios (1975): Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΒ΄: Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση (1821–1832) [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XII: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832)] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 265–267.
  42. ^ Eliot, A. (1972). A Concise History of Greece. Cassell Council of Europe Series. Cassell. p. 193. The revolutionaries were both blessed and cursed in their leadership. Among the klephts who bore the brunt of the land fighting were Odysseus Androutsos of Boeotia, Marko Bozzaris, and Theodoros Kolokotronis. Such men did battle only when it suited them, being inveterate guerrilla warriors. They also made temporary arrangements with the enemy as a matter of policy. This was not considered treason to the infant Greek nation, since the very concept of nationhood was itself foreign to the thinking of the klephts.
  43. ^ Clair, William St (2008). That Greece Might Still be Free: The Philhellenes in the War of Independence. Open Book Publishers. p. xviii. ISBN 978-1-906924-00-3.

SourcesEdit