Oda Nobukatsu

Oda Nobukatsu (織田 信雄, 1558 – June 10, 1630) was a Japanese samurai of the Azuchi–Momoyama period. He was the second son of Oda Nobunaga. He survived the decline of the Oda clan from political prominence, becoming a daimyō in the early Edo period. Though often described as an incompetent general, Nobukatsu was a skilled warrior. In the battle of Komaki and Nagakute, he used a 13th-century tachi of the Fukuoka Ichimonji school, to slay a samurai known as Okada Sukesaburō, therefore the blade was known as "Okada-giri Yoshifusa", now a national treasure.

Oda Nobukatsu
織田 信雄
Oda Nobukatu.jpg
Daimyō of Uda-Matsuyama
In office
1615–1630
Preceded byFukushima Takaharu
Succeeded byOda Takanaga
Personal details
Born1558
DiedJune 10, 1630(1630-06-10) (aged 71–72)
NationalityJapanese
Spouse(s)Kitabatake Tomonori's daughter
FatherOda Nobunaga
Military service
AllegianceMon-Oda.png Oda clan
Goshichi no kiri inverted.svg Toyotomi clan
Tokugawa family crest.svg Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa family crest.svg Tokugawa shogunate
UnitKitabatake clan
Battles/warsTenshō Iga War
Battle of Komaki and Nagakute
Siege of Odawara
Korean Campaign
Siege of Osaka

BiographyEdit

In 1570, Nobukatsu became an adopted heir of the Kitabatake clan and married a daughter of the former lord of Kitabatake, Tomonori. The true nature of this marriage was a condition of truce forced by the Oda clan to the Kitabatake clan.

In 1575, Nobukatsu officially became the head of the family. The next year, he killed his father-in-law, imprisoned the previous lord, who was his father by adoption, and completely took over the Kitabatake clan.

In 1579, eager to achieve fame, Nobukatsu directed a first invasion of Iga, Iga Province, which only ended in disastrous failure and severe rebuke from his father.

Two years later in 1581, Nobunaga himself led the second invasion with an army of several ten thousand, destroyed the whole region and placing control iga province in Nobukatsu's hands.[1][2]

Death of NobunagaEdit

When Nobunaga and his heir, Nobutada, died at the Honnō-ji incident in 1582, problems arose about who would succeed the lordship of Oda clan. When Nobukatsu and his younger brother, Nobutaka, quarreled over the matter, a council decided on the infant son of Nobutada, Oda Hidenobu. The opinion of Toyotomi Hideyoshi was most influential on this decision.[3]

At this point, Nobukatsu changed his surname back to Oda. He succeeded his father as lord of Mino, Owari, and Ise Provinces.

Decline of NobukatsuEdit

 
A tachi Okadagiri Yoshifusa made in the Kamakura period. The name of this tachi comes from the fact that during the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute in 1584, Oda Nobuo used this sword to kill Okada Shigetaka, his retainer who was suspected of being a traitor. National Treasure

In 1583, during the succeeding chaotic years, Nobukatsu joined with Hideyoshi to destroy Oda Nobutaka.[3]:313 However, soon their relationship became hostile too, and Nobukatsu allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to fight Hideyoshi in the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute in 1584. After more than a half year of battles, Hideyoshi persuaded Nobukatsu to make peace, offering him the security of the dominion. Nobukatsu took this offer and practically became a retainer of Hideyoshi.

Later in 1590, when he served at the Odawara Campaign, he refused to accept Hideyoshi's order to change his dominion, and later he not only lost his original domain but was also forced to become a monk under the supervision of some Toyotomi retainers. A few years later, Hideyoshi's anger eased and Nobukatsu regained some land to rule.

In 1598, He became the guardian of Toyotomi Hideyori after Hideyoshi's death.

However in 1615, he betrayed the Toyotomi clan at the Siege of Osaka, and surrendered to Tokugawa Ieyasu. As a result, he was permitted to remain a daimyō by the Tokugawa shogunate. Though he is often described as an incompetent general, he managed to survive the series of upheavals. After the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, he became the lord of the Uda-Matsuyama Domain in Yamato Province (modern-day Nara Prefecture), and comfortably lived the rest of his life.

FamilyEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ōta (2011), p. 413-415
  2. ^ Nishigaki, Matsushima (1975), p. 104
  3. ^ a b Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 311. ISBN 0804705259.
Preceded by
Kitabatake Tomofusa
Kitabatake family head
1572–1582
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
Fukushima Takaharu
1st (Oda) Lord of Uda-Matsuyama
1615–1630
Succeeded by
Oda Takanaga