The Nukha uezd[a] was a county (uezd) of the Elizavetpol Governorate of the Russian Empire and later of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic with its center in Nukha (present-day Shaki) from 1868 until its formal abolition in 1921 by the Soviet authorities of the Azerbaijan SSR.[1][2]

Nukha uezd
Нухинскій уѣздъ
Coat of arms of Nukha uezd
Location in the Elizavetpol Governorate
Location in the Elizavetpol Governorate
CountryRussian Empire
ViceroyaltyCaucasus
GovernorateElizavetpol
Established1868
Abolished1921
CapitalNukha
(present-day Shaki)
Area
 • Total4,193.79 km2 (1,619.23 sq mi)
Population
 (1916)
 • Total185,748
 • Density44/km2 (110/sq mi)
 • Urban
28.13%
 • Rural
71.87%

GeographyEdit

The Nukha uezd was located in the far northeastern part of the Elizavetpol Governorate, bordering the Dagestan Oblast to the north, the Baku Governorate to the east, the Zakatal Okrug to the west, and the Aresh uezd to the south. The administrative center of the Nukha uezd was the city of Nukha. The northern part of the uezd was largely mountainous and laid along the Greater Caucasus mountain range, where the altitude reaches as high as 14-15 thousand feet in altitude. The notable peaks of the district included Mount Bazardüzü (14,722 ft) and Tkhfan Dag (13,764 ft) whose valleys were enriched with many rivers. The southern part of the region possessed the best conditions for agricultural use including gardening, harvesting rice and sericulture. The main rivers in the Nukha uezd were Shin-chay, Kish-chay, Ajighan-chay, Turyanchay, Goychay which were used for irrigation purposes.[2]

HistoryEdit

After the establishment of Russian rule over the khanates in the South Caucasus and the implementation of administrative reforms, the territories of the erstwhile Shaki Khanate were incorporated into Shamakhi Governorate of the Russian Empire, later ebing renamed to the Baku Governorate. Upon establishment of the Elizavetpol Governorate in 1868, the Nukha uezd was transferred from the Baku to Elizavetpol Governorates.[3] In 1874, the southern section of Nukha uezd was separated to form the Aresh uezd within the same governorate. On 30 August 1918, the Elizavetpol Governorate was officially renamed to the Ganja Governorate in an effort by the authorities of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to de-Russify the region of its Tsarist toponyms.[4]

Administrative divisionsEdit

The subcounties (uchastoks) of the Nukha uezd in 1912 were as follows:[5]

Uchastok Russian name 1912 population Area
1st 1-й участокъ 25,017 332.21 square versts (378.08 km2; 145.98 sq mi)
2nd 2-й участокъ 18,296 1,122.70 square versts (1,277.70 km2; 493.32 sq mi)
3rd 3-й участокъ 28,257 559.82 square versts (637.11 km2; 245.99 sq mi)
4th 4-й участокъ 32,465 1,070.30 square versts (1,218.07 km2; 470.30 sq mi)

EconomyEdit

The population was engaged primarily in agricultural farming, gardening, sericulture, tobacco growing.[2] At the end of the 19th century, Nukha uezd was making up about 95% of tobacco production of Elizavetpol Governorate.[6]

DemographicsEdit

Russian Empire census (1897)Edit

According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the Nukha uezd had a population of 120,555, including 65,244 men and 55,311 women. The majority of the population indicated Tatar (later known as Azerbaijani) to be their mother tongue, with significant Armenian, Kyurin, and Udi speaking minorities.[7]

Linguistic composition of the Nukha uezd in 1897[7]
Language Native speakers %
Tatar[b] 83,578 69.33
Armenian 18,899 15.68
Kyurin 8,506 7.06
Udi 7,030 5.83
Tat 1,752 1.45
Kazi-Kumukh 234 0.19
Russian 196 0.16
Georgian 68 0.06
Lithuanian 68 0.06
Avar-Andean 65 0.05
Jewish 35 0.03
Persian 30 0.02
Polish 27 0.02
Ukrainian 27 0.02
German 7 0.01
Belarusian 7 0.01
Greek 2 0.00
Romanian 2 0.00
Kurdish 1 0.00
Other 21 0.02
TOTAL 120,555 100.00

Caucasian Calendar (1917)Edit

According to the 1917 publication of the Caucasian Calendar, the Nukha uezd had 185,748 residents in 1916, including 102,423 men and 83,325 women, 182,124 of whom were the permanent population, and 3,624 were temporary residents. The statistics indicated the district to be overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim with sizeable Armenian, Asiatic Christian and Shia Muslim minorities:[8]

Nationality Urban Rural TOTAL
Number % Number % Number %
Sunni Muslims[c] 33,813 64.72 92,552 69.32 126,365 68.03
Armenians 8,009 15.33 17,751 13.30 25,760 13.87
Asiatic Christians 0 0.00 10,668 7.99 10,668 5.74
Shia Muslims[d] 9,588 18.35 1,005 0.75 10,593 5.70
North Caucasians 244 0.47 7,861 5.89 8,105 4.36
Russians[e] 575 1.10 1,831 1.37 2,406 1.30
Jews 7 0.01 1,681 1.26 1,688 0.91
Georgians 0 0.00 156 0.12 156 0.08
Other Europeans 7 0.01 0 0.00 7 0.00
TOTAL 52,243 100.00 133,505 100.00 185,748 100.00

NotesEdit

  1. ^
  2. ^ Later known as Azerbaijani.
  3. ^ Primarily Turco-Tatars.[9]
  4. ^ Primarily Tatars,[9] later known as Azerbaijanis.[10]
  5. ^ The Caucasian Calendar did not distinguish between Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elisavetpol (government)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 09 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 280.
  2. ^ a b c "Большой энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона. Нуха" [Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia Dictionary. Nukha]. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
  3. ^ Agaian, Tshatur (1956). Крестьянская реформа в Азербайджане в 1870 году [Peasant reforms in Azerbaijan in 1870]. Baku, Azerbaijan: National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR. p. 61.
  4. ^ Khalafov, M.S. (1964). История государства и права Азербайджанской ССР [History of State and Law of Azerbaijan SSR]. Vol. 1. Baku, Azerbaijan: National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR. Institute of Philosophy and Law. p. 46.
  5. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1913 год [Caucasian calendar for 1913] (in Russian) (68th ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1913. pp. 152–159. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022.
  6. ^ Molchanov, Vasily Dmitrievich (1958). Крестьянское хозяйство в Закавказье к концу XIX в [Peasant agriculture in Transcaucasus at the end if 19th century]. Moscow: National Academy of Sciences of USSR. p. 425.
  7. ^ a b "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-28.
  8. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1917 год [Caucasian calendar for 1917] (in Russian) (72nd ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1917. pp. 190–197. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021.
  9. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 67.
  10. ^ Bournoutian 2015, p. 35.

BibliographyEdit

  • Bournoutian, George (2015). "Demographic Changes in the Southwest Caucasus, 1604–1830: The Case of Historical Eastern Armenia". Forum of EthnoGeoPolitics. Amsterdam. 3 (2).
  • Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01805-2.

Coordinates: 41°11′31″N 47°10′14″E / 41.19194°N 47.17056°E / 41.19194; 47.17056