where n is the degree of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. Roots of higher degree are referred by using ordinal numbers, as in fourth root, twentieth root, etc.
- 3 is a square root of 9, since 32 = 9.
- −3 is also a square root of 9, since (−3)2 = 9.
Any non-zero number, considered as complex number, has n different "complex roots of degree n" (n-th roots), including those with zero imaginary part, i.e. any real roots. The root of 0 is zero for all degrees n, since 0n = 0. In particular, if n is even and x is a positive real number, one of its n-th roots is positive, one is negative, and the rest (when n > 2) are complex but not real; if n is even and x is a negative real, none of the n-th roots is real. If n is odd and x is real, one n-th root is real and has the same sign as x, while the other (n − 1) roots are not real. Finally, if x is not real, then none of its n-th roots is real.
Roots are usually written using the radical symbol or radix with denoting the principal square root of , denoting the principal cube root, denoting the principal fourth root, and so on. In the expression , n is called the index, is the radical sign or radix, and is called the radicand. Since the radical symbol denotes a function, it is defined to return only one result for a given argument , which is called the principal n-th root of . Conventionally, a real root, preferably non-negative, if there is one, is designated as the principal n-th root.
A complementary definition of principal root (though not formally defined or universally accepted) is to say that it is always the complex root that has the least value of the argument among all roots; here “argument” is bound to and means the counterclockwise angle in radian between the positive real axis and the line joining the complex number to the origin.
- has three cube roots: , and with arguments respectively. Of these, has the least argument and hence in some contexts is considered the principal cube root, while in other contexts is said to be the principal cube root because it is the only real one.
- has four fourth roots: and , having arguments and respectively. So is always considered the unique principal square root, because it is a positive real, which necessarily has the least argument possible: .
An unresolved root, especially one using the radical symbol, is sometimes referred to as a surd or a radical. Any expression containing a radical, whether it is a square root, a cube root, or a higher root, is called a radical expression, and if it contains no transcendental functions or transcendental numbers it is called an algebraic expression.
Roots are particularly important in the theory of infinite series; the root test determines the radius of convergence of a power series. Roots can also be defined for complex numbers, and the complex roots of 1 (the roots of unity) play an important role in higher mathematics. Galois theory can be used to determine which algebraic numbers can be expressed using roots and to prove the Abel–Ruffini theorem, which states that a general polynomial equation of degree five or higher cannot be solved using roots alone; this result is also known as "the insolubility of the quintic".
Definition and notationEdit
An nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is any of the n real or complex numbers r whose nth power is x:
Every positive real number x has a single positive nth root, called the principal nth root, which is written . For n equal to 2 this is called the principal square root and the n is omitted. The nth root can also be represented using exponentiation as x1/n.
For even values of n, positive numbers also have a negative nth root, while negative numbers do not have a real nth root. For odd values of n, every negative number x has a real negative nth root. For example, −2 has a real 5th root, but −2 does not have any real 6th roots.
Every non-zero number x, real or complex, has n different complex number nth roots. (In the case x is real, this count includes any real nth roots.) The only complex root of 0 is 0.
The nth roots of almost all numbers (all integers except the nth powers, and all rationals except the quotients of two nth powers) are irrational. For example,
All nth roots of integers are algebraic numbers.
The term surd traces back to al-Khwārizmī (c. 825), who referred to rational and irrational numbers as audible and inaudible, respectively. This later led to the Arabic word "أصم" (asamm, meaning "deaf" or "dumb") for irrational number being translated into Latin as "surdus" (meaning "deaf" or "mute"). Gerard of Cremona (c. 1150), Fibonacci (1202), and then Robert Recorde (1551) all used the term to refer to unresolved irrational roots.
A square root of a number x is a number r which, when squared, becomes x:
Every positive real number has two square roots, one positive and one negative. For example, the two square roots of 25 are 5 and −5. The positive square root is also known as the principal square root, and is denoted with a radical sign:
Since the square of every real number is a positive real number, negative numbers do not have real square roots. However, every negative number has two imaginary square roots. For example, the square roots of −25 are 5i and −5i, where i represents a square root of −1.
A cube root of a number x is a number r whose cube is x:
Every real number x has exactly one real cube root, written . For example,
Every real number has two additional complex cube roots.
Identities and propertiesEdit
Expressing the degree of an n-th root in its exponent form, as in , makes it easier to manipulate powers and roots.
Every positive real number has exactly one positive real nth root, and such the rules for operations with surds involving positive radicands are straightforward within the real numbers:
Problems can occur when taking the n-th roots of negative or complex numbers. For instance:
- but rather
Since the rule strictly holds for non-negative real radicands only, its application leads to the inequality in the first step above.
Simplified form of a radical expressionEdit
A non-nested radical expression is said to be in simplified form if
- There is no factor of the radicand that can be written as a power greater than or equal to the index.
- There are no fractions under the radical sign.
- There are no radicals in the denominator.
For example, to write the radical expression in simplified form, we can proceed as follows. First, look for a perfect square under the square root sign and remove it:
Next, there is a fraction under the radical sign, which we change as follows:
Finally, we remove the radical from the denominator as follows:
When there is a denominator involving surds it is always possible to find a factor to multiply both numerator and denominator by to simplify the expression. For instance using the factorization of the sum of two cubes:
Simplifying radical expressions involving nested radicals can be quite difficult. It is not obvious for instance that:
The above can be derived through:
The radical or root may be represented by the infinite series:
with . This expression can be derived from the binomial series.
Computing principal rootsEdit
where the dots signify that the decimal expression does not end after any finite number of digits. Since in this example the digits after the decimal never enter a repeating pattern, the number is irrational.
nth root algorithmEdit
until the desired precision is reached.
Depending on the application, it may be enough to use only the first Newton approximant:
For example, to find the fifth root of 34, note that 25 = 32 and thus take x = 2, n = 5 and y = 2 in the above formula. This yields
The error in the approximation is only about 0.03%.
Newton's method can be modified to produce a generalized continued fraction for the nth root which can be modified in various ways as described in that article. For example:
In the case of the fifth root of 34 above (after dividing out selected common factors):
Digit-by-digit calculation of principal roots of decimal (base 10) numbersEdit
Building on the digit-by-digit calculation of a square root, it can be seen that the formula used there, , or , follows a pattern involving Pascal's triangle. For the nth root of a number is defined as the value of element in row of Pascal's Triangle such that , we can rewrite the expression as . For convenience, call the result of this expression . Using this more general expression, any positive principal root can be computed, digit-by-digit, as follows.
Write the original number in decimal form. The numbers are written similar to the long division algorithm, and, as in long division, the root will be written on the line above. Now separate the digits into groups of digits equating to the root being taken, starting from the decimal point and going both left and right. The decimal point of the root will be above the decimal point of the square. One digit of the root will appear above each group of digits of the original number.
Beginning with the left-most group of digits, do the following procedure for each group:
- Starting on the left, bring down the most significant (leftmost) group of digits not yet used (if all the digits have been used, write "0" the number of times required to make a group) and write them to the right of the remainder from the previous step (on the first step, there will be no remainder). In other words, multiply the remainder by and add the digits from the next group. This will be the current value c.
- Find p and x, as follows:
- Let be the part of the root found so far, ignoring any decimal point. (For the first step, ).
- Determine the greatest digit such that .
- Place the digit as the next digit of the root, i.e., above the group of digits you just brought down. Thus the next p will be the old p times 10 plus x.
- Subtract from to form a new remainder.
- If the remainder is zero and there are no more digits to bring down, then the algorithm has terminated. Otherwise go back to step 1 for another iteration.
Find the square root of 152.2756.
1 2. 3 4 / \/ 01 52.27 56
01 100·1·00·12 + 101·2·01·11 ≤ 1 < 100·1·00·22 + 101·2·01·21 x = 1 01 y = 100·1·00·12 + 101·2·01·12 = 1 + 0 = 1 00 52 100·1·10·22 + 101·2·11·21 ≤ 52 < 100·1·10·32 + 101·2·11·31 x = 2 00 44 y = 100·1·10·22 + 101·2·11·21 = 4 + 40 = 44 08 27 100·1·120·32 + 101·2·121·31 ≤ 827 < 100·1·120·42 + 101·2·121·41 x = 3 07 29 y = 100·1·120·32 + 101·2·121·31 = 9 + 720 = 729 98 56 100·1·1230·42 + 101·2·1231·41 ≤ 9856 < 100·1·1230·52 + 101·2·1231·51 x = 4 98 56 y = 100·1·1230·42 + 101·2·1231·41 = 16 + 9840 = 9856 00 00 Algorithm terminates: Answer is 12.34
Find the cube root of 4192 to the nearest hundredth.
1 6. 1 2 4 3 / \/ 004 192.000 000 000
004 100·1·00·13 + 101·3·01·12 + 102·3·02·11 ≤ 4 < 100·1·00·23 + 101·3·01·22 + 102·3·02·21 x = 1 001 y = 100·1·00·13 + 101·3·01·12 + 102·3·02·11 = 1 + 0 + 0 = 1 003 192 100·1·10·63 + 101·3·11·62 + 102·3·12·61 ≤ 3192 < 100·1·10·73 + 101·3·11·72 + 102·3·12·71 x = 6 003 096 y = 100·1·10·63 + 101·3·11·62 + 102·3·12·61 = 216 + 1,080 + 1,800 = 3,096 096 000 100·1·160·13 + 101·3·161·12 + 102·3·162·11 ≤ 96000 < 100·1·160·23 + 101·3·161·22 + 102·3·162·21 x = 1 077 281 y = 100·1·160·13 + 101·3·161·12 + 102·3·162·11 = 1 + 480 + 76,800 = 77,281 018 719 000 100·1·1610·23 + 101·3·1611·22 + 102·3·1612·21 ≤ 18719000 < 100·1·1610·33 + 101·3·1611·32 + 102·3·1612·31 x = 2 015 571 928 y = 100·1·1610·23 + 101·3·1611·22 + 102·3·1612·21 = 8 + 19,320 + 15,552,600 = 15,571,928 003 147 072 000 100·1·16120·43 + 101·3·16121·42 + 102·3·16122·41 ≤ 3147072000 < 100·1·16120·53 + 101·3·16121·52 + 102·3·16122·51 x = 4 The desired precision is achieved: The cube root of 4192 is about 16.12
The principal nth root of a positive number can be computed using logarithms. Starting from the equation that defines r as an nth root of x, namely with x positive and therefore its principal root r also positive, one takes logarithms of both sides (any base of the logarithm will do) to obtain
The root r is recovered from this by taking the antilog:
(Note: That formula shows b raised to the power of the result of the division, not b multiplied by the result of the division.)
For the case in which x is negative and n is odd, there is one real root r which is also negative. This can be found by first multiplying both sides of the defining equation by −1 to obtain then proceeding as before to find |r|, and using r = −|r|.
The ancient Greek mathematicians knew how to use compass and straightedge to construct a length equal to the square root of a given length. In 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved that an nth root of a given length cannot be constructed if n is not a power of 2.
Every complex number other than 0 has n different nth roots.
The two square roots of a complex number are always negatives of each other. For example, the square roots of −4 are 2i and −2i, and the square roots of i are
If we express a complex number in polar form, then the square root can be obtained by taking the square root of the radius and halving the angle:
A principal root of a complex number may be chosen in various ways, for example
Using the first(last) branch cut the principal square root maps to the half plane with non-negative imaginary(real) part. The last branch cut is presupposed in mathematical software like Matlab or Scilab.
Roots of unityEdit
The number 1 has n different nth roots in the complex plane, namely
These roots are evenly spaced around the unit circle in the complex plane, at angles which are multiples of . For example, the square roots of unity are 1 and −1, and the fourth roots of unity are 1, , −1, and .
Every complex number has n different nth roots in the complex plane. These are
where η is a single nth root, and 1, ω, ω2, ... ωn−1 are the nth roots of unity. For example, the four different fourth roots of 2 are
In polar form, a single nth root may be found by the formula
Here r is the magnitude (the modulus, also called the absolute value) of the number whose root is to be taken; if the number can be written as a+bi then . Also, is the angle formed as one pivots on the origin counterclockwise from the positive horizontal axis to a ray going from the origin to the number; it has the properties that and
Thus finding nth roots in the complex plane can be segmented into two steps. First, the magnitude of all the nth roots is the nth root of the magnitude of the original number. Second, the angle between the positive horizontal axis and a ray from the origin to one of the nth roots is , where is the angle defined in the same way for the number whose root is being taken. Furthermore, all n of the nth roots are at equally spaced angles from each other.
If n is even, a complex number's nth roots, of which there are an even number, come in additive inverse pairs, so that if a number r1 is one of the nth roots then r2 = –r1 is another. This is because raising the latter's coefficient –1 to the nth power for even n yields 1: that is, (–r1)n = (–1)n × r1n = r1n.
It was once conjectured that all polynomial equations could be solved algebraically (that is, that all roots of a polynomial could be expressed in terms of a finite number of radicals and elementary operations). However, while this is true for third degree polynomials (cubics) and fourth degree polynomials (quartics), the Abel–Ruffini theorem (1824) shows that this is not true in general when the degree is 5 or greater. For example, the solutions of the equation
cannot be expressed in terms of radicals. (cf. quintic equation)
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- Silver, Howard A. (1986). Algebra and trigonometry. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-021270-9.
- "Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics". Mathematics Pages by Jeff Miller. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
- McKeague, Charles P. (2011). Elementary algebra. p. 470.
- B. F. Caviness, R. J. Fateman, "Simplification of Radical Expressions", Proceedings of the 1976 ACM Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation, p. 329.
- Richard Zippel, "Simplification of Expressions Involving Radicals", Journal of Symbolic Computation 1:189–210 (1985) doi:10.1016/S0747-7171(85)80014-6.
- Wantzel, M. L. (1837), "Recherches sur les moyens de reconnaître si un Problème de Géométrie peut se résoudre avec la règle et le compas", Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, 1 (2): 366–372.