Nepenthes × alisaputrana
Nepenthes × alisaputrana (/ / preferably, or /- /; after Datuk Lamri Ali), or the leopard pitcher-plant, is a hybrid of two well-known Nepenthes pitcher plant species: N. burbidgeae and N. rajah. The plant is confined to Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Borneo.
|Nepenthes × alisaputrana|
|A lower pitcher of N. × alisaputrana|
N. × alisaputrana
|Nepenthes × alisaputrana|
|Distribution of N. × alisaputrana.|
Nepenthes × alisaputrana was described in 1992 by J. H. Adam and C. C. Wilcock and is named in honour of Datuk Lamri Ali, a former Director of Sabah Parks. It is only known from a few remote localities within Kinabalu National Park, where it grows in stunted, open vegetation over serpentine soils at around 2000 m above sea level, often amongst populations of N. burbidgeae. It grows alongside both parent species on Pig Hill, where it is found at 1930–1950 m.
This plant is notable for combining the best characters of both parent species, not least the size of its pitchers, which rival those of N. rajah in volume (≤35 cm high, ≤20 cm wide). The other hybrids involving N. rajah do not exhibit such impressive proportions. The pitchers of N. × alisaputrana can be distinguished from those of N. burbidgeae by a broader peristome, larger lid and simply by their sheer size. The hybrid differs from its other parent, N. rajah, by its lid structure, indumentum of short, brown hairs, narrower and more cylindrical peristome, and pitcher colour, which is usually yellow-green with red or brown flecking. For this reason, Anthea Phillipps and Anthony Lamb gave it the common name "Leopard Pitcher-Plant". The peristome is green to dark red and striped with purple bands. Leaves are often slightly peltate. The hybrid is a strong climber and frequently produces upper pitchers.
Nepenthes × alisaputrana more closely resembles N. rajah than N. burbidgeae, but it is difficult to confuse this plant with either. However, this mistake has previously been made on at least one occasion; a pitcher illustrated in Adrian Slack's Insect-Eating Plants and How to Grow Them as being N. rajah is in fact N. burbidgeae × N. rajah.
|Distribution of phenolic compounds and leucoanthocyanins in|
N. burbidgeae, N. rajah, and N. × alisaputrana
|N. burbidgeae||Jumaat 2484|
|N. rajah||Jumaat 2443|
|N. × alisaputrana||Jumaat 2442|
|N. × alisaputrana (in vitro)|
|Key: 1: Phenolic acid, 2: Ellagic acid, 3: Quercetin, 4: Kaempferol, 5: Luteolin, 6: 'Unknown Flavonoid 1', 7: 'Unknown Flavonoid 3', 8: Cyanidin
±: very weak spot, +: weak spot, ++: strong spot, 3+: very strong spot, -: absent
In 2002, phytochemical screening and analytical chromatography were used to study the presence of phenolic compounds and leucoanthocyanins in N. × alisaputrana and its putative parent species. The research was based on leaf material from nine dry herbarium specimens. Eight spots containing phenolic acids, flavonols, flavones, leucoanthocyanins and 'unknown flavonoid' 1 and 3 were identified from chromatographic profiles. The distributions of these in the hybrid N. × alisaputrana and its putative parental species N. burbidgeae and N. rajah are shown in the adjacent table. A specimen of N. × alisaputrana grown from tissue culture (in vitro) was also tested.
Luteolin, cyanidin and 'Unknown Flavonoid 3' were undetected in N. burbidgeae, while concentrations of 'Unknown Flavonoid 1' were found to be weak. Chromatographic patterns of the N. × alisaputrana samples studied showed complementation of its putative parental species.
Myricetin was found to be absent from all studied taxa. This agrees with the findings of previous authors and suggests that the absence of a widely distributed compound like myricetin among the Nepenthes examined might provide additional diagnostic information for these taxa.
- Adam, J.H. & C.C. Wilcock 1992. A new natural hybrid of Nepenthes from Mt. Kinabalu (Sabah). Reinwardtia 11(1): 35–40.
- Phillipps, A. & A. Lamb 1996. Pitcher-Plants of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
- Clarke, C.M. 1997. Nepenthes of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
- Clarke, C.M. 2001. A Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Sabah. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
- Thong, J. 2006. "Travels around North Borneo – Part 2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-07-04. Victorian Carnivorous Plant Society Journal 82: 6–12.
- Adam, J.H., C.C. Wilcock & M.D. Swaine 1992. "The ecology and distribution of Bornean Nepenthes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(1): 13–25.
- Slack, A. 1986. Insect-Eating Plants and How to Grow Them. Alphabooks, Dorset, UK.
- Jay, M. & P. Lebreton 1972. Chemotaxonomic research on vascular plants. The flavonoids of Sarraceniaceae, Nepenthaceae, Droseraceae and Cephlotaceae, a critical study of the order Sarraceniales. Naturaliste Canadien 99: 607–613.
- Som, R.M. 1988. Systematic studies on Nepenthes species and hybrids in the Malay Peninsula. Ph.D. thesis, Fakulti Sains Hayat, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
- Adam, J.H. 1997. "Prey spectra of Bornean Nepenthes species (Nepenthaceae) in relation to their habitat" (PDF). Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 20(2–3): 121–134.
- Adam, J.H. & C.C. Wilcock 1999. "Palynological study of Bornean Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae)" (PDF). Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 22(1): 1–7.
- Beaman, J.H. & C. Anderson 2004. The Plants of Mount Kinabalu: 5. Dicotyledon Families Magnoliaceae to Winteraceae. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
- Cantley, R., M. Cheek, P.F. Gardner, P. Mann, B. Meyers-Rice, N. Parker & P. Temple 2000. "Favorite Anecdotes on Adrian Slack" (PDF). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 29(4): 109–116.
- McPherson, S.R. & A. Robinson 2012. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of Borneo. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
- Thong, J. 2006. "Travels around North Borneo – Part 1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Victorian Carnivorous Plant Society Journal 81: 12–17.
- Yeo, J. 1996. A trip to Kinabalu Park. Bulletin of the Australian Carnivorous Plant Society, Inc. 15(4): 4–5.
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