Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who eschewed technology, including personal computers in school and cruise control in cars, and is best known for twenty books regarding technology and education, including Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Conscientious Objections (1988), Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology (1992), The Disappearance of Childhood (1994), and The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
|Born||March 8, 1931|
New York City, U.S.
|Died||October 5, 2003 (aged 72)|
New York City, U.S.
|Education||State University of New York at Fredonia|
Postman was born in New York City, where he would spend most of his life. In 1953, he graduated from the State University of New York at Fredonia and enlisted in the military but was released less than five months later. At Teachers College, Columbia University he was awarded a Master's degree in 1955 and an Ed.D (Doctor of Education) degree in 1958. Postman took a position with San Francisco State University's English Department in 1958. Soon after, in 1959, he began teaching at New York University (NYU).
In 1971, at NYU's Steinhardt School of Education, he founded a graduate program in media ecology. He became the School of Education's only University Professor in 1993, and was chairman of the Department of Culture and Communication until 2002.
At age 72, Postman died of lung cancer at a hospital in Flushing, Queens, on October 5, 2003. At the time, he had been married to his wife, Shelley Ross Postman, for 48 years. They had three children. He is buried in Cedar Park Cemetery, Paramus, New Jersey, where his headstone reads "Beloved Husband, Father Grandfather, Brother and Teacher."
|"Life and Career of Neil Postman", January 14, 1988, C-SPAN|
Postman wrote 20 books and more than 200 magazine and newspaper articles in, for example, The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Magazine, Time, Saturday Review, Harvard Educational Review, The Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Stern, and Le Monde. He was the editor of the quarterly journal ETC: A Review of General Semantics from 1976 to 1986. In 1976, Postman taught a course for NYU credit on CBS-TV's Sunrise Semester called "Communication: the Invisible Environment". He was also a contributing editor at The Nation. Several of Postman's articles were reprinted after his death in the quarterly journal, ETC.: A Review of General Semantics as part of a 75th Anniversary Edition in October 2013.
Postman never owned a computer or typewriter, and wrote exclusively in longhand. Despite his oft-quoted concerns about television, computers, and the role of technology in society, Postman used the medium of television to advance his ideas and sat for many television interviews. Later in life, Postman even had cable television in his home.
In 1969 and 1970 Postman collaborated with New Rochelle educator Alan Shapiro on the development of a model school based on the principles expressed in Teaching as a Subversive Activity. In Teaching as a Subversive Activity, Postman and co-author Charles Weingartner suggests that many schools have curricula that are trivial and irrelevant to students' lives. The result of Postman and Weingartner's critiques in Teaching as a Subversive Activity was the "Program for Inquiry, Involvement, and Independent Study" within New Rochelle High School. This "open school" experiment survived for 15 years, and in subsequent years many programs following these principles were developed in American high schools, current survivors include Walter Koral's Language class at the Village School in Great Neck, New York.
In a 1973 address, "The Ecology of Learning," at the Conference on English Education, Postman proposes seven changes for schools that build on his critiques expressed in Teaching as a Subversive Activity. First, Postman proposes that schools should be "convivial communities" for learning rather than places that try to control students through judgement and punishment. Secondly, Postman suggests that schools should either discard or dramatically change grading practices that lead to competition in school rather than an attitude of learning. Postman also proposes getting rid of homogeneous groupings of students that reinforce social and economic inequalities, standardized tests that promote competition, and permanently kept student records that are used to punish and control students. Proactively, Postman suggests that industries and professional schools, rather than K-12 schools, should develop criteria for selecting students and that schools should focus on civic education that teaches students their rights as citizens.
In a television interview conducted in 1995 on PBS's MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, Postman spoke about his opposition to the use of personal computers in schools. He felt that school was a place to learn together as a cohesive group and that it should not be used for individualized learning. Postman also worried that the personal computer was going to take away from individuals socializing as citizens and human beings.
Amusing Ourselves to DeathEdit
One of Postman's most influential works is Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. In Amusing, Postman argued that by expressing ideas through visual imagery, television reduces politics, news, history, and other serious topics to entertainment. He worried that culture would decline if the people became an audience and their public business a "vaudeville act." Postman also argued that television is destroying the "serious and rational public conversation" that was sustained for centuries by the printing press.
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|Booknotes interview with Postman on Technopoly, August 30, 1992, C-SPAN|
In his 1992 book Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to Technology, Postman defines "Technopoly" as a society which believes "the primary, if not the only, goal of human labor and thought is efficiency, that technical calculation is in all respects superior to human judgment ... and that the affairs of citizens are best guided and conducted by experts."
In an interview, Postman described Technopoly as being about the tendency of technology to be given cultural control of sovereign American social institutions.
Postman argues that the United States is the only country to have developed into a technopoly. He claims that the U.S. has been inundated with technophiles who do not see the downside of technology. This is dangerous because technophiles want more technology and thus more information. However, according to Postman, it is impossible for a technological innovation to have only a one-sided effect. With the ever-increasing amount of information available, Postman argues that: "Information has become a form of garbage, not only incapable of answering the most fundamental human questions but barely useful in providing coherent direction to the solution of even mundane problems."
Postman was not opposed to all forms of technology. In page 7 of Technopoly, he agrees that technological advancements, specifically "the telephone, ocean liners, and the reign of hygiene," have lengthened and improved modern life. In his words, this agreement proves that he is not a "one-eyed technophobe".
In Technopoly, Postman discusses Luddism, explaining that being a Luddite often is associated with a naive opposition to technology. But, according to Postman, historical Luddites were trying to preserve their way of life and rights given to them prior to the advancement of new technologies.
|Presentation by Postman on Building a Bridge to the 18th Century, December 1, 1999|
- Television and the Teaching of English (1961).
- Linguistics: A Revolution in Teaching, with Charles Weingartner (Dell Publishing, 1966).
- Teaching as a Subversive Activity, with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1969).
- "Bullshit and the Art of Crap-Detection" – speech given at National Convention for the Teachers of English (1969)
- The Soft Revolution: A Student Handbook For Turning Schools Around, with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1971).
- The School Book: For People Who Want to Know What All the Hollering is About, with Charles Weingartner (Delacorte Press, 1973).
- Crazy Talk, Stupid Talk: How We Defeat Ourselves By the Way We Talk and What to Do About It (1976). Postman's introduction to general semantics.
- Teaching as a Conserving Activity (1979).
- The Disappearance of Childhood (1982).
- Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (1985).
- Conscientious Objections: Stirring Up Trouble About Language, Technology and Education (1988).
- How to Watch TV News, with Steve Powers (1992).
- Technopoly: the Surrender of Culture to Technology (1992).
- The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
- Building a Bridge to the 18th Century: How the Past Can Improve Our Future (1999).
- MacNeil, R. (Writer/Host).Visions of Cyberspace: With Charlene Hunter Gault (July 25, 1995). Arlington, Virginia: MacNeil/Lehrer Productions.
- Staff (October 12, 2003). "LATimes.com". LA Times.
- "A teacher's life: Remembering Neil Postman". thevillager.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- "Encyclopedia Britannica entry on D. Postman".
- Wolfgang Saxon: New York Times Obituary: Neil Postman, October 9, 2003
- "Neil Postman | American educator, media theorist, and social critic". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
- Shropshire Lad (December 7, 2016). "Neil Milton Postman Grave". Find A Grave.
- McGain, Robert Stacey (November 4, 2003). "Obituary: Neil Postman". The Guardian. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- "Sunrise Semester begins 13th Season". Lakeland Ledger. September 19, 1976. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "ETC: A Review of General Semantics on JSTOR". jstor.org. October 2013.
- "3I Program: Proposal, 1970". joshkarpf.com.
- Wardhaugh, Ronald (1970). "Review of Teaching as a Subversive Activity". The School Review. 78 (3): 429–434. doi:10.1086/442921. ISSN 0036-6773. JSTOR 1084165.
- Hu, Winnie (November 12, 2007). "Profile Rises at School Where Going Against the Grain Is the Norm". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- Postman, Neil (April 1974). "The Ecology of Learning". The English Journal. 63 (4): 58–64. doi:10.2307/813650. JSTOR 813650.
- Postman, Neil (1974). "The Ecology of Learning". The English Journal. 63 (4): 58–64. doi:10.2307/813650. JSTOR 813650.
- From interview from PBS on MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour (1995).
- In this speech, Postman encouraged teachers to help their students "distinguish useful talk from bullshit". He argued that it was the most important skill students could learn, and that teaching it would help students understand their own values and beliefs.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Neil Postman|
|Wikiversity has learning resources about Neil Postman: Five Things We Need to Know About Technological Change|
- The Neil Postman Information Page
- Neil Postman: Collected Online Articles
- Neil Postman, Defender of The Word by Lance Strate
- Discussion on Technology with Scott London (MP3)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Summary of the book Amusing Ourselves to Death
- Comparative Postman: 1985–2010, 30min. media compilation illustrating the critical merits of technological determinism 25 years later – by Cultural Farming.
- A film clip "The Open Mind – Are We Amusing Ourselves to Death?, Part I (1985)" is available at the Internet Archive
- A film clip "The Open Mind – Are We Amusing Ourselves to Death?, Part II (1985)" is available at the Internet Archive
- Neil Postman at Find a Grave
- The Legacy of Neil Postman, College Quarterly Winter 2004 - Volume 7 Number 1