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Native American dogs were dogs living with people indigenous to the Americas.[citation needed] They are now all extinct.[1]

Contents

PrehistoryEdit

Whereas the appearance of dogs have been traced in America for at least 10,000 years, well datable dog fossils appear in South America only between 7,500 and 4,500 YBP.[2][3] Findings for dogs in South America get only denser by 3,500 YBP but seem to be restricted to agriculture in the Andes.[2][3] The oldest finding of a dog for Brazil is dated as 1701 and 1526 cal BP,[2] and for the Pampas of Argentina the oldest is dated as 930 BP.[3]

LineageEdit

In 2018, a study compared sequences of North American dog fossils with Siberian dog fossils and modern dogs. The nearest relative to the North American fossils was a 9,000 YBP fossil discovered on Zhokhov Island, arctic north-eastern Siberia, which was connected to the mainland at that time. The study inferred from mDNA that all of the North American dogs shared a common ancestor dated 14,600 YBP, and this ancestor had diverged along with the ancestor of the Zhokhov dog from their common ancestor 15,600 YBP. The timing of the Koster dogs shows that dogs entered North America from Siberia 4,500 years after humans did, were isolated for the next 9,000 years, and after contact with Europeans these no longer exist because they were replaced by Eurasian dogs. The pre-contact dogs exhibit a unique genetic signature that is now gone, with DNA from the cell nucleus indicating that their nearest genetic relatives today are the arctic breed dogs - Alaskan malamutes, Greenland dogs, and Alaskan huskies and Siberian huskies.[1]

The dogs of native Americans were described as looking and sounding like wolves.[4] The Hare Indian dog is suspected by one author of being a domesticated coyote based on its historical description.[5]

Historical purposesEdit

Culinary

Depending on the people, dog meat could be taboo, only eaten in famine; just not generally eaten; or a normal element of their cuisine, used in either daily life or as a delicacy.[citation needed] Dogs were more commonly eaten amongst people who lived on the great plains, but not all great plains cultures partook in it.[citation needed] Some of the cultures that ate dogs were:

Hunting

The village dogs of the great plains were occasionally used to help hunt small game.[citation needed] Other dogs, such as the Tahltan Bear Dog, were bred to hunt larger game [8]

Herding

In the Andes region of South America some cultures like the Chiribaya and Inca used herding dogs, such as the Peruvian shepherd dog.

Lap dogs

Mexica nobles occasionally kept tlalchichi, the ancestor of modern Chihuahuas, as pets.[citation needed]

Retrieving

The Innu of modern eastern Canada used the Innu Canoe Hunting dog for retrieving shot waterfowl.[citation needed]

Sledding

Some northern cultures, mainly the Inuit-Yup'ik, developed dogs for sledding; such as the ancestors of the Alaskan Malamute.[citation needed]

Watch dogs

The pariah dogs of many nations served use as watchdogs.[citation needed]

Modern timesEdit

In 2018, a study compared sequences of fossil North American dogs with fossil Siberian dogs and modern dogs. The study indicates that dogs entered North America from Siberia 4,500 years after humans did, were isolated for 9,000 years, and after contact with Europeans these no longer exist because they were replaced with Eurasian dogs. The pre-contact dogs exhibit a unique genetic signature that is also now gone, with their nearest genetic relatives being the modern arctic breed dogs.[9]

Breeds and landracesEdit

Extinct, classified breeds:

Ancient breeds & landraces:

Standardized breeds that were previously landraces:

Breeds Falsely advertised as Native American originate:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Perri, Angela R; Irving-Pease, Evan K; Witt, Kelsey E; Linderholm, Anna; Haile, James; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Ameen, Carly; Blick, Jeffrey; Boyko, Adam R; Brace, Selina; Cortes, Yahaira Nunes; Crockford, Susan J; Devault, Alison; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Eldridge, Morley; Enk, Jacob; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Gori, Kevin; Grimes, Vaughan; Guiry, Eric; Hansen, Anders J; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Johnson, John; Kitchen, Andrew; Kasparov, Aleksei K; Kwon, Young-Mi; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Lope, Carlos Peraza; et al. (2018). "The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas". Science. 361 (6397): 81–85. doi:10.1126/science.aao4776. PMID 29976825.
  2. ^ a b c Guedes Milheira, R.; Loponte, D. M.; García Esponda, C.; Acosta, A.; Ulguim, P.: The First Record of a Pre-Columbian Domestic lupus familiaris) in Brazil. In: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 23 Sep 2016, doi: 10.1002/oa.2546, [1].
  3. ^ a b c Luciano Prates, Francisco J. Prevosti, Mónica Berón: First records of Prehispanic dogs in southern South America (Pampa-Patagonia, Argentina). In: Current Anthropology, volume 51, number. 2, April 2010, pp. 273-280, doi: 10.1086/650166.
  4. ^ Dogs: Domestication and the Development of a Social Bond by Darcy F. Morey page 40
  5. ^ "Was the Hare Indian dog a domesticated coyote? | Natural History". Retrieverman.net. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  6. ^ Kelly (Wiggins), Fanny. "Narrative of My Captivity Among the Sioux Indians", Hartford, Conn.: Mutual publishing company, 1871.
  7. ^ "Hernan Cortés: from Second Letter to Charles V, 1520". Fordham University. Retrieved August 14, 2018. There are also sold rabbits, hares, deer, and little dogs [i.e., the chihuahua], which are raised for eating
  8. ^ "Pets - Tips & Advice | mom.me". Pawnation.com. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  9. ^ Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Perri, Angela R; Irving-Pease, Evan K; Witt, Kelsey E; Linderholm, Anna; Haile, James; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Ameen, Carly; Blick, Jeffrey; Boyko, Adam R; Brace, Selina; Cortes, Yahaira Nunes; Crockford, Susan J; Devault, Alison; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Eldridge, Morley; Enk, Jacob; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Gori, Kevin; Grimes, Vaughan; Guiry, Eric; Hansen, Anders J; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Johnson, John; Kitchen, Andrew; Kasparov, Aleksei K; Kwon, Young-Mi; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Lope, Carlos Peraza; et al. (2018). "The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas". Science. 361 (6397): 81–85. doi:10.1126/science.aao4776. PMID 29976825.
  10. ^ "Barks From The Past – 10 Extinct Dog Breeds | Dog Reflections". Dogguide.net. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  11. ^ "The Tahltan Bear Dog". Everythinghusky.com. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  12. ^ Rhitu Chatterjee (2013-07-10). "Barking Up The Family Tree: American Dogs Have Surprising Genetic Roots". NPR. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Chinook History". Chinook.org. 1917-01-17. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  15. ^ "Northern Inuit Dog". Petguide.com. 2015-05-21. Retrieved 2016-05-21.

External linksEdit