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Mycoestrogen

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Mycoestrogens are estrogens produced by fungi. Among important mycoestrogens are zearalenone, zearalenol and zearalanol[1] Although all of these can be produced by various Fusarium species,[2][3] zearalenol and zearalanol may also be produced endogenously in ruminants that have ingested zearalenone.[4][5] Alpha-zearalanol is also produced semisynthetically, for veterinary use; such use is prohibited in the European Union.[6]

In FoodEdit

Mycoestrogens are commonly found in stored grain. They can come from fungi growing on the grain as it grows, or after harvest during storage. Mycoestrogens can be found in silage. [7]

TypesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Fink-Gremmels, J.; Malekinejad, H. (October 2007). "Clinical effects and biochemical mechanisms associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen zearalenone". Animal Feed Science and Technology. 137 (3-4): 326–341. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.008. 
  2. ^ Richardson, Kurt E.; Hagler, Winston M.; Mirocha, Chester J. (September 1985). "Production of zearalenone, .alpha.- and .beta.-zearalenol, and .alpha.- and .beta.-zearalanol by Fusarium spp. in rice culture". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 33 (5): 862–866. doi:10.1021/jf00065a024. 
  3. ^ Hsieh, Han-Yun; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Liao, Chen-Wei; Lee, Ren-Jye; Lee, Maw-Rong; Vickroy, Thomas W; Chou, Chi-Chung (April 2012). "Liquid chromatography incorporating ultraviolet and electrochemical analyses for dual detection of zeranol and zearalenone metabolites in mouldy grains". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 92 (6): 1230–1237. PMID 22012692. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4687. 
  4. ^ Miles, C. O., A. F. Erasmuson, A. L. Wilkins, N. R. Towers, B. L. Smith, I. Garthwaite, B. G. Scahill, and R. P. Hansen. 1996. Ovine metabolism of zearalenone to α-zearalanol (zeranol). J. Agr. Food Chem. 44: 3244-3250.
  5. ^ Kennedy, D. G., S. A. Hewitt, J. D. McEvoy, J. W. Currie, A. Cannavan, W. J. Blanchflower, and C. T. Elliot. 1998. Zeranol is formed from Fusarium spp. toxins in cattle in vivo. Food Additives and Contaminants 15: 393-400.
  6. ^ Thevis, M., Fußhöller, and W. Schänzer. 2011. Zeranol: doping offence or mycotoxin? A case‐related study. Drug Testing and Analysis 3: 777-783.
  7. ^ González Pereyra ML, Alonso VA, Sager R, Morlaco MB, Magnoli CE, Astoreca AL, Rosa CA, Chiacchiera SM, Dalcero AM, Cavaglieri LR (April 2008). "Fungi and selected mycotoxins from pre- and postfermented corn silage". Journal of Applied Microbiology. 104 (4): 1034–41. PMID 18005347. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03634.x. 
  8. ^ Marin, S.; Ramos, A.J.; Cano-Sancho, G.; Sanchis, V. (October 2013). "Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 60: 218–237. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.047.