Ormeloxifene, also known as centchroman, is one of the selective estrogen receptor modulators, or SERMs, a class of medication which acts on the estrogen receptor. It is best known as a nonsteroidal oral contraceptive which is taken once per week. In India, ormeloxifene has been available as birth control since the early 1990s, and it was marketed there under the trade name Saheli, currently available free-of-cost for the women in India as Chhaya (Centchroman). Ormeloxifene has also been licensed under the trade names Novex-DS, Centron, and Sevista.
|Trade names||Centron, Novex-DS, Saheli, Sevista, Chhaya|
|Drug class||Selective estrogen receptor modulator|
|Elimination half-life||7 days|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||457.614 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
|Failure rates (first year)|
|Duration effect||One week|
|User reminders||Taken twice weekly for first 13 weeks|
|Advantages and disadvantages|
|Safe while breastfeeding||Yes|
|Weight||No proven effect|
|Only approved as a contraceptive in India|
Ormeloxifene may be used as a weekly oral contraceptive. The weekly schedule is an advantage for women who prefer an oral contraceptive, but find it difficult or impractical to adhere to a daily schedule required by other oral contraceptives.
For the first twelve weeks of use, it is advised to take the ormeloxifene pill twice per week. From the thirteenth week on, it is taken once per week. The consensus is that backup protection in the first month is a cautious but sensible choice. A standard dose is 30 mg weekly, but 60 mg loading doses can reduce pregnancy rates by 38%.
Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). In some parts of the body, its action is estrogenic (e.g., bones), in other parts of the body, its action is antiestrogenic (e.g., uterus, breasts). It causes an asynchrony in the menstrual cycle between ovulation and the development of the uterine lining, although its exact mode of action is not well defined. In clinical trials, it caused ovulation to occur later than it normally would in some women, but did not affect ovulation in the majority of women, while causing the lining of the uterus to build more slowly. It speeds the transport of any fertilized egg through the fallopian tubes more quickly than is normal. Presumably, this combination of effects creates an environment such that if fertilization occurs, implantation will not be possible.
Ormeloxifene was first discovered by Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow, India. Ormeloxifene was marketed in Delhi in July 1991 and in India in 1992, under the brand names Saheli and Choice-7.
Society and cultureEdit
As of 2009, ormeloxifene was legally available only in India.
Ormeloxifene has been tested and licensed as a form of birth control, as well as a treatment for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
- manufactured by Torrent Pharmaceuticals, and marketed as birth control under the trade name Centron. Centron was discontinued.
- A new license for ormeloxifene was issued to Hindustan Latex Ltd., which now manufactures ormeloxifene as birth control under the trade names Saheli, Novex, and Novex-DS.
- Torrent Pharmaceuticals has resumed manufacture of ormeloxifene under the trade name Sevista, as a treatment for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
- Gupta RC, Paliwal JK, Nityanand S, Asthana OP, Lal J (1995). "Centchroman: a new non-steroidal oral contraceptive in human milk". Contraception. 52 (5): 301–5. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(95)00214-U. PMID 8585887.
- Makker, Annu; Tandon, Indu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Mastan; Singh, Man Mohan (2009). "Effect of ormeloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on biomarkers of endometrial receptivity and pinopode development and its relation to fertility and infertility in Indian subjects". Fertility and Sterility. 91 (6): 2298–307. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.04.018. PMID 18675966.
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- http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/1fp/1advances/old/1centch/ceorvw.htm[full citation needed]
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- Singh, M.M. (2001). "Centchroman, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as a contraceptive and for the management of hormone-related clinical disorders". Medicinal Research Reviews. 21 (4): 302–47. doi:10.1002/med.1011. PMID 11410933. S2CID 37474826.
- Kriplani A, Kulshrestha V, Agarwal N (August 2009). "Efficacy and safety of ormeloxifene in management of menorrhagia: a pilot study". J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 35 (4): 746–52. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00987.x. PMID 19751337. S2CID 39172838.
- Dhar A, Srivastava A (June 2007). "Role of centchroman in regression of mastalgia and fibroadenoma". World J Surg. 31 (6): 1178–84. doi:10.1007/s00268-007-9040-4. PMID 17431715. S2CID 22828570.
- Shelly, W; Draper, MW; Krishnan, V; Wong, M; Jaffe, RB (March 2008). "Selective estrogen receptor modulators: an update on recent clinical findings". Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 63 (3): 163–81. doi:10.1097/OGX.0b013e31816400d7. PMID 18279543. S2CID 23585991.
- "CSIR-CDRI | Home". cdri.res.in. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- Gara Rishi Kumar, Konwar Rituraj, Bid Hemant K and MM Singh. In-vitro anti-cancer breast activity of ormeloxifene is mediated via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. 37th annual conference of the endocrine society of India. 30 Nov – 2 Dec 2007. Abstract p. 35.
- Nigam, Manisha; Ranjan, Vishal; Srivastava, Swasti; Sharma, Ramesh; Balapure, Anil K. (2008). "Centchroman induces G0/G1 arrest and Caspase-dependent Apoptosis involving Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells". Life Sciences. 82 (11–12): 577–90. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2007.11.028. PMID 18279897.
- "Centchroman". CSIR-CDRI. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Singh MM (2001). "Centchroman, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as a contraceptive and for the management of hormone-related clinical disorders". Med Res Rev. 21 (4): 302–47. doi:10.1002/med.1011. PMID 11410933. S2CID 37474826.
- Lal J (2010). "Clinical pharmacokinetics and interaction of centchroman--a mini review". Contraception. 81 (4): 275–80. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.11.007. PMID 20227542.
- Patil, Robin D. Tribhuwan & Benazir D. (2009). Body image : human reproduction and birth control : a tribal perspective. New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-8356-388-8.
- United States National Library of Medicine Centchroman entry in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database
- Reproductive Health Online, a Johns Hopkins University affiliate providing information on Centchroman
- Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India: a government-funded laboratory, conducting R&D on Centchroman as birth control.
- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare - Indian government site; information about availability of Saheli.