Mountain and moorland pony breeds
Mountain and moorland ponies form a group of several breeds of ponies and small horses native to the British Isles. Many of these breeds are derived from semiferal ponies kept on moorland or heathland, and some of them still live in this way, as well as being kept as fully domesticated horses for riding, driving, and other draught work, or for horse showing.
Traditionally, the modern mountain and moorland ponies have been regarded as including nine breeds (the four Welsh types being counted as one). However, in recent decades, at least two further types have been recognised: the Eriskay and the Kerry Bog Pony. Larger native British Isles horses (such as the various large draught breeds) are not regarded as belonging to the mountain and moorland group.
Mountain and moorland ponies are generally stocky in build, with flowing manes and tails. They are very hardy and are "good doers", needing relatively little feed to live. They are prone to obesity and if allowed to graze freely on lush forage, may develop related health problems, including laminitis. The various types range from about 11 hands (44 inches, 112 cm) to over 14 hands (56 inches, 142 cm). Shetlands are smaller, not to exceed 10.2 hands (42 inches, 107 cm). Shetlands are measured in inches. Some breeds, such as the Exmoor, are uniform in colour and pattern, but others permit a wide range of colours. However, the Shetland is the only breed that can be skewbald or piebald, though even Shetlands cannot be "spotted."
Several types of mountain and moorland ponies still live in a semiferal state on unenclosed moorland or heathland. These areas are usually unfenced common land, on which local people have rights to graze livestock, including their ponies. They are minimally managed; some examples are the mares are turned out for the whole year, living in small groups, which often consist of an older mare, several of her female offspring, and their foals (which are born in spring, after a gestation of 11 months). Small numbers of stallions are allowed to join the mares for a few weeks in spring or early summer. Each stallion then gathers a harem of mares and their foals to form a larger group of up to 20 or so. The foals and mares are rounded up in autumn, when the colts and some of the fillies are removed for sale. The remaining fillies are usually branded to indicate ownership. Some geldings may also be turned out. Ponies still kept in this way include New Forest, Exmoor, Dartmoor, and Welsh. Fell Ponies are also kept in a semiferal state, but managed differently. Each of these breeds also has a population kept as fully domesticated animals.
In horse shows, mountain and moorland classes are divided into two subsections - small breeds and large breeds, although the four Welsh types are often shown in their own classes, instead. They are overseen by the relevant breed society, and by the British Show Pony Society.
Mountain and moorland breedsEdit
- The Shetland Pony is from the Shetland Isles off the northern tip of Scotland.
- The Exmoor Pony is from Exmoor in Somerset and Devon in south-west England.
- The Dartmoor Pony is from Dartmoor in Devon in south-west England.
- The Welsh Mountain Pony (section A) and Welsh Pony (section B) are from Wales.
- The Eriskay pony is from the island of Eriskay in the Hebrides. It was formerly more widespread, and perhaps largely absorbed into the Highland.
- The Kerry Bog Pony is from south-west Ireland.
- The Connemara Pony is from County Galway in western Ireland.
- The Highland Pony is from Scotland. Larger, mainland types are known as a garron.
- The Dales Pony is from the eastern Pennines of northern England.
- The Fell Pony is from Cumbria in north-western England.
- The New Forest Pony is from the New Forest in Hampshire on the south coast of England.
- The Welsh Pony (section C) and Welsh Cob (section D) are from Wales.
- The Galloway pony is from Scotland and northern England. Now extinct, it was perhaps absorbed into the Highland and Fell.
Showing mountain and moorland poniesEdit
Mountain and moorland ponies are shown in their "native" state, and are not trimmed or plaited (braided). In reality, a little light trimming is commonplace, for example to show off the fine head of the Connemara, and Welsh Ponies often have their manes pulled to a length of about six inches. In some cases, trimming is necessary - if a small-breeds pony's tail was left to grow unchecked, it would become matted with mud and the pony could stand on it, potentially causing injury to itself or its rider.
Riders wear tweed jackets, canary or buff breeches, shirt and tie, plain gloves, and a navy hat. Adult riders on large breed ponies wear long boots with garter straps. Adult riders on small-breed ponies must wear jodhpur boots with jodhpur clips. Children wear jodhpur boots with jodhpur clips. Show canes or plain leather whips are carried.
The use of spurs is forbidden in all mountain and moorland classes.
The mountain and moorland breeds are well-adapted to surviving on poor-quality grazing. This makes them suitable for use in conservation grazing, the use of livestock to manage land of high ecological value in a natural way. Pony breeds used in this way in Britain include the Exmoor, Dartmoor, Fell, Welsh, and New Forest (as well as some similar ponies from other parts of Europe such as the Icelandic and Konik).