Moundou (Arabic: موندو) is the second largest city in Chad and is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental.

Moundou
موندو
Moundou
Moundou
Moundou is located in Chad
Moundou
Moundou
Location in Chad
Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083Coordinates: 8°34′N 16°05′E / 8.567°N 16.083°E / 8.567; 16.083
Country Chad
RegionLogone Occidental Region
DepartmentLac Wey
Sub-PrefectureMoundou
Elevation
413 m (1,355 ft)
Population
 (2012)
 • Total137,929
Time zone+1

The city lies on the Mbéré River (a tributary of the Western Logone) some 475 kilometres south of the capital N'Djamena. It is the main city of the Ngambai people. Moundou has grown as an industrial centre, home to the Gala Brewery, which produces Chad's most popular beer and the cotton and oil industries.

HistoryEdit

The city was created on 8 November 1923 by the French sergeant and administrator Joseph-François Reste, Lieutenant-General of Chad from 1923 to 1926 and future Governor General of French Equatorial Africa, [1][2] who, from the whaleboat upon which he navigated the Logone, found the site pretty.[3] By 1916, the military conquest of Chad was completed, however movements of resistance to the colonial regime took place. It was especially in the southwest of the country that dissensions continued until about 1930.[4][5] He decided to found the post of Moundou in the centre of the rebellious zone.[6] The rebellious situation did not change much with the arrival of Lieutenant Robert Reverdy. Chief of the district of the Middle Logone in 1925, Reverdy, who became a director in 1927, completed an uninterrupted stay for five years and eight months. He moved the chief town of the district to Moundou in 1927. Riding the country, on horseback and by litter, he subjected the organisation of strong chieftains, first of village then of township.

On 20 April 1930, Governor Georges Prouteaux of Oubangi-Chari (the district was attached to Oubangui-Chari in 1926) signed a decision reorganising the "indigenous of the Middle Logone" by creating 40 cantons, divided into five subdivisions. Reverdy had his right-hand man, local chief Hassan Moundou or Hassan Baguirmi, of Baguirmian or rather Baguirmianised Dekakire Arab origin, installed as chief of the township of Moundou.[7][4][5] Not all chiefs were of traditional origin. In the animist country, custom only recognised clan chiefs or war or initiation leaders, who were strictly specialised and temporary. However, the system was accepted by the population, and some chiefs remained in office for more than a quarter of a century. Their descendants are still in place today.[7]

Reverdy[6] (called Baoguel, the "Left-Handed", in the Ngambay language)[3] urbanised the post of Moundou that he established. He planted the flowers (from February to May) that line the roads of Moundou, which became the origin of the nickname of the city during the colonial period, "Moundou-la-Rouge".[3]

In 1926 the Cotton Company of the Congo installed a ginning factory in Moundou. The cotton company later became Cotonfran in 1928 and then CotonTchad in 1972.[8][9]

The first cadastral map of the town of Moundou was manufactured on 2 February 1926. Since there were not, at the time, the materials for substantial topographical surveys, the drainage pipeline of the town was facing the river in the belief that the natural inclination would head toward the river, when in reality the river level is higher than the level of the city. In 2012, the mayor of Moundou, Laoukein Kourayo Médard, said that "every time there was a flood, all the waters of the Logone discharged to Lake Wey (in the West), which in turn sprays its water into the city, flooding Moundou entirely."[10]

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Like other parts of southern Chad and the East Sudanian savanna, Moundou has a typical tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), with a wet season and a dry season and the temperature being hot year-round. The average annual high temperature is 34.0 °C (93.2 °F), while the average annual low temperature is 20.1 °C (68.2 °F). The hottest time of year is from March to May, just before the wet season starts. March has the highest average high at 38.6 °C (101.5 °F), while the highest average low is 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in April. August has the lowest average high at 29.8 °C (85.6 °F) (the only average high below 30.0 °C (86.0 °F)), while December has the lowest average low at 14.6 °C (58.3 °F).

Moundou receives 1,082.8 millimetres (42.63 in) of rain over 85 precipitation days, with a distinct wet and dry season like most tropical savanna climates. December and January receive no precipitation at all, with almost no rain falling from November to March. August, the wettest month, receives 284.8 millimetres (11.21 in) of rainfall on average. August also has 19 precipitation days, which is the most of any month. Humidity is much higher in the wet season than the dry season, with February having a humidity at just 28% and August having a humidity at 81%. Moundou receives 2810.4 hours of sunshine annually on average, with the sunshine being distributed fairly evenly across the year, although it is lower during the wet season. December receives the most sunshine, while August receives the least.

Climate data for Moundou (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.1
(93.4)
36.7
(98.1)
38.6
(101.5)
38.0
(100.4)
35.7
(96.3)
32.3
(90.1)
30.2
(86.4)
29.8
(85.6)
30.7
(87.3)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
Average low °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
18.3
(64.9)
22.5
(72.5)
24.2
(75.6)
23.5
(74.3)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.4
(63.3)
14.6
(58.3)
20.1
(68.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.01)
4.6
(0.18)
39.2
(1.54)
89.8
(3.54)
147.7
(5.81)
257.8
(10.15)
284.8
(11.21)
200.1
(7.88)
57.1
(2.25)
1.5
(0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
1,082.8
(42.63)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 1 2 5 9 12 15 19 13 7 2 0 85
Average relative humidity (%) 36 28 31 50 63 73 80 81 78 73 56 45 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 249.2 248.0 234.0 241.8 210.0 182.9 170.5 186.0 235.6 282.0 291.4 2,810.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.0 8.9 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.0 5.9 5.5 6.2 7.6 9.4 9.4 7.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[11]
Source 2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[12]

Municipal districtsEdit

There are four quarters or municipal districts of Moundou, further subdivided into 20 neighbourhoods:[13]

    • First district:
      1. DOMBAO neighbourhood
      2. DOYON neighbourhood
      3. TAYE neighbourhood (also spelt Tayeh)
      4. BEBANDJI neighbourhood
      5. KOUDJIRIKO neighbourhood
      6. NGARA neighbourhood
    • Second district:
      1. NGUELBE neighbourhood
      2. BAGUIRMI neighbourhood
      3. BOURNOU neighbourhood
      4. HAUSA neighbourhood
    • Third district:
      1. GUELKOURA neighbourhood
      2. QUINZE ANS (fifteen years) neighbourhood
      3. DOUMBEUR I neighbourhood (also spelt Dombeur)
      4. DOHERI neighbourhood
      5. MBAGUE neighbourhood
    • Fourth district:
      1. MBOMBAYA neighbourhood
      2. GUELDJEM neighbourhood
      3. DOMBEUR II neighbourhood (also spelt Doumbeur)
      4. KOUTOU GUELMBAGUE neighbourhood
      5. MADANA neighbourhood

DemographicsEdit

Year Population[14]
1993 99,530
2008 142,462

EconomyEdit

The city has an industry of ginning and processing of cotton (oil and soap) under CotonTchad. The export of cotton was done before the discovery of oil, the current main source of income for Chad. Cotton cultivation has been funded by French corporations (through the CCCE, now the AFD,[15] and the public company Dagris, now Geocoton) and the European Development Fund[16][17] of the European Union.

The city has also a historical beer industry through the Brasseries du Logone and the Gala brand,[18][19] synonymous with luxury beer in Chad and in Cameroon.

Cigarettes are made in the city by the Manufacture des Cigarettes du Tchad (MCT) company.[20]

TransportsEdit

Moundou is situated on one of the main roads in southern Chad. The road runs from Léré on the border with Cameroon, through Pala, Kélo, Moundou, Doba, Koumra and Sarh.[21][22]

The town is served by Moundou Airport (IATA: MQQ, ICAO: FTTD), with a paved runway.

EducationEdit

Moundou is home to several schools and, since 2002, a higher education institution, the University of Moundou (fr),[23] which was created by ordinance No. 013 / PR / 2008 of 5 March 2008.[24] The current university used to be the Moundou University Institute of Business Techniques or IUTEM (Institut universitaire des techniques d'entreprise de Moundou) which was created by Law No. 10 / PR / 02 of 2 September 2002.[24]

Primary schoolsEdit

Secondary schoolsEdit

  • Lycée Adoum d'Allah[35] (public)
  • Notre Dame College of Chad[36] (closed)
  • Lycée Technique Commercial de Moundou[37]
  • Lycée-Collège de l'Amitié (LYCAM)[33]
  • Lycée Djarabé[33]
  • Lycée Palais Du Savoir de Moundou[33]
  • Lycée Guelkol[33]
  • CEG No. 2[31]
  • College du Lac Taba[33]
  • Ecole Enfants Unis[33][38]
  • Lycée Le Héros[33]
  • Lycée Communal[33]
  • Collège Evangelique Gary[33]

Other schoolsEdit

  • Ecole des Sourds de Moundou[39]

Places of worshipEdit

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques. There are also Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Diocese of Moundou (Catholic Church), Evangelical Church of Chad, Christian Assemblies in Chad (Plymouth Brethren).[40]

Twin towns/sister citiesEdit

Moundou is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mario J. Azevedo, Samuel Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, Rowman & Littlefield, USA, 2018, p. 355
  2. ^ "Le gouverneur Général François Reste de Roca". lalbere.net. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (1 October 2010). Tchad (in French). Petit Futé. p. 170. ISBN 978-2746929432.
  4. ^ a b Magnant, Jean-Pierre (1 January 1992). L'Islam au Tchad: actes du colloque organisé au Centre d'étude d'Afrique noire de l'Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux, 1990 ; sous la direction de Jean-Pierre Magnant (in French). CEAN. p. 115. ISBN 9782908065121.
  5. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF).
  6. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 429.
  7. ^ a b "Résistances et mouvements anticoloniaux au Tchad (1914-1940)" (PDF). p. 430.
  8. ^ Nojibaye, Daniel (1976). Étude des mécanismes de croissance urbaine du Tchad, l'exemple de Moundou et Sahr (ex Fort Archambault). Lille: Université Lille 2.
  9. ^ Inc, IBP (3 March 2008). Chad Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Law. Lulu.com. p. 158. ISBN 9781433077159.
  10. ^ "Urbanisme". Centerblog. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  11. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Moundou". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Moundou Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  14. ^ World Gazetteer: Chad
  15. ^ "LA FILIERE COTONNIERE DU TCHAD Historique, Evolution et Perspectives" (PDF). 2016. p. 7.
  16. ^ ""10eme fed" - mai 2008 - Europa" (PDF). May 2008.
  17. ^ Magrin, Géraud (1 January 2001). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 125. ISBN 9782876144620.
  18. ^ "Histoire des Brasseries du Tchad". bdt-td.com. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  19. ^ Magrin, Géraud (1 January 2001). Le sud du Tchad en mutation: Des champs de coton aux sirènes de l'or noir (in French). Editions Quae. p. 178. ISBN 9782876144620.
  20. ^ "MANUFACTURE DES CIGARETTES DU TCHAD (MCT) - Petit Futé".
  21. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  22. ^ "RÉSUMÉ DE L'ÉTUDE D'IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL ET SOCIAL DU TRONÇON ROUTIER DOBA - SARH" (PDF). Fonds Africain de Développement. December 2008.
  23. ^ Moustapha. "Université de Moundou (UDM) - L'Etudiant tchadien". www.etudiant-tchadien.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Légitchad". legitchad.cefod-tchad.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  25. ^ "Moundou | YALNA, "Nos enfants"". yalna.org. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  26. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010.
  27. ^ "MOUNDOU: Centre scolaire de Ku-Jéricho — Communauté du Chemin Neuf". td.chemin-neuf.org. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  28. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (1 October 2001). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 95. ISBN 9780759698741.
  29. ^ Umeh, Vincent (2013). "curriculum vitae - IPPC". p. 2.
  30. ^ Beasnael, Sem Miantoloum (1 October 2001). The Plagues of Friendship. AuthorHouse. p. 52. ISBN 9780759698741.
  31. ^ a b "Impacts VIH Education TCHAD" (PDF). p. 12.
  32. ^ "Ahmad Mohammed et les écoles du Tchad - UNICEF" (in French). 13 July 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010.
  34. ^ "Présentation Je m'appelle DANNERO Aubin Je suis de nationalité tchadienne,…". plus.google.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  35. ^ "CV4718F: Assistante en Publicité - Marketing - AFRIQUEMPLOIS.NET" (PDF). p. 1.
  36. ^ "Moundou (Collège Notre-Dame du Tchad) | Les Soeurs de Saint-Joseph". www.sjsh.org. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  37. ^ Mbaïosso, Adoum (1 January 1990). L'éducation au Tchad: bilan, problèmes et perspectives (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782865372737.
  38. ^ "Ecole enfants unis, enfants unis de djarabe II, Moundou". www.schoolius.com. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  39. ^ "SOMMAIRE - Association Poitiers-Moundou" (PDF). 2010. p. 9.
  40. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 534
  41. ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2016. {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  42. ^ Communication, Ville de Poitiers - Service. "Villes jumelles > Moundou - Ville de Poitiers". www.poitiers.fr. Retrieved 9 December 2016.