The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on 19 September 1944, ending the Continuation War.[2] The Armistice restored the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940, with a number of modifications.

Moscow Armistice
The areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Continuation War. Porkkala was returned to Finland in 1956.[1]
TypeBilateral treaty
Signed19 September 1944 (1944-09-19)
LocationMoscow, Russian SFSR, USSR
Parties
Ratifiers
  •  Soviet Union
  •  United Kingdom
  •  Finland

The final peace treaty between Finland and many of the Allies was signed in Paris in 1947.

Conditions for peace edit

 
Finnish and Soviet officers gather for negotiations on September 5, 1944

The conditions for peace were similar to what had been agreed in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940: Finland was obliged to cede parts of Karelia and Salla, as well as certain islands in the Gulf of Finland. The new armistice also handed all of Petsamo to the Soviet Union, and Finland was further compelled to lease Porkkala to the Soviet Union for a period of fifty years (the area was returned to Finnish control in 1956).[1] Territories ceded to the Soviet Union constituted approximately 11.50% (44,106.23 Sq Km) of Finland's territory (382,561.23 Sq Km) prior to the Winter War and the Continuation War as dictated by the Treaty of Tartu.

Other conditions included Finnish payment of nearly $300,000,000 ($5 billion in today's US dollars) in the form of various commodities over six years to the Soviet Union as war reparations.[3] Finland also agreed to legalise the Communist Party of Finland (after it had made some changes to the party rules) and ban parties that the Soviet Union considered fascist.[4] Further, the individuals that the Soviets considered responsible for the war had to be arrested and put on trial, the best-known case being that of Risto Ryti.[5] The armistice compelled Finland to drive German troops from its territory, leading to a military campaign in Lapland.

Surrendered territory edit

Municipalities annexed by the Soviet Union
English Name Finnish Name Russian Cyrillic Name Sq Km Sq Miles
Petsamo Petsamo Печенгский 10,470 6,505.76
Janiskoski-Niskakoski Jäniskoski-Niskakoski Янискоски-Нискакоски 176 109.36
Antrea Antrea Каменногорск 486.4 302.23
Harlu Harlu Харлу 252.6 156.96
Heinjoki Heinjoki Хейнйоки 342.1 212.57
Hiitola Hiitola Хийтола 464 288.32
Impilahti Impilahti Импилахти 904 561.72
Jaakima Jaakkima Яккима 501.9 311.87
Johannes Johannes Советский 217.6 135.21
Kanneljarvi Kanneljärvi Победа 246.3 153.04
Kaukola Kaukola Севастьяново 293.7 182.5
Kirvu Kirvu Свободное 695.22 432
Kivennapa Kivennapa Первомайское 650.52 404.21
Koivisto Koivisto Койвистон 283.1 175.91
Kuolemajarvi Kuolemajärvi Пионерское 400 248.55
Kurkijoki Kurkijoki Куркийоки 539.5 335.23
Kakisalmi Käkisalmi Какисалмен 188.54 117.15
Lumivaara Lumivaara Лумиваара 292.4 181.69
Metsapirtii Metsäpirtti Метсапиртти 186.9 116.13
Muolaa Muolaa Муолаа 750.02 466.04
Pyhajarvi Pyhäjärvi Пюхаярви 522 324.35
Rautu Rautu Рауту 339.6 211.02
Ruskeala Ruskeala Рускеала 519 322.49
Raisala Räisälä Райсала 492.95 306.30
Sakkola Sakkola Саккола 349.4 217.11
Salmi Salmi Салми 1,423 884.21
Soanlahti Soanlahti Соанлахти 504 313.17
Sortavala Sortavala Сортавалан 690.88 429.3
Suistamo Suistamo Суистамо 1,623.80 1009
Suojarvi Suojärvi Суоярви 3,688.40 2,292
Terijoki Terijoki Терийоки 122.42 76.07
Uusikirkko Uusikirkko Уусикиркко 641.70 398.73
Valkjarvi Valkjärvi Валкъярви 400 248.55
Vyborg Viipuri Выборг 613.93 381.48
Vuoksela Vuoksela Вуоксела 135 83.88
Vuoksenranta Vuoksenranta Вуоксенранта 300.22 186.55
Ayrapaa Äyräpää Эуряпяя 205.7 127.82

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Return of Porkkala by Soviets 50 years ago had strings attached". Helsingin Sanomat. 25 January 2006.
  2. ^ Armistice Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,on the one hand, and Finland on the other
  3. ^ "HS Home 3.9.2002 – Last war reparation train crossed Finnish-Soviet border 50 years ago". 2012-02-06. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. Retrieved 2022-09-19.
  4. ^ (in Finnish) Jukka Nevakivi (2006) Jatkosodasta nykypäivään. (From Continuation War to Today. In: Suomen poliittinen historia 1809–2006. WSOY, Helsinki
  5. ^ Jakobson, Max (former Finnish Ambassador to the UN) Finnish wartime leaders on trial for "war guilt" 60 years ago Helsingin Sanomat International edition, 28 October 2005

Further reading edit

  • Malbone W. Graham. (1945). "Armistices – 1944 Style". The American Journal of International Law 39, 2: 286–95.

External links edit