Moengo (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈmuŋ.ɡo]) is a town in Suriname, located in the Marowijne district, between Paramaribo and the border town Albina on the Cottica River. Moengo is also a resort (municipality) in the district of Marowijne. Moengo was the capital of Marowijne District between 1932 and 1945. The current capital is Albina.[2]

Moengo
Bauxite factory
Bauxite factory
Marowijne resorts.png
Resorts of Marowijne District.
  Moengo
Coordinates: 5°37′N 54°24′W / 5.617°N 54.400°W / 5.617; -54.400
Country Suriname
DistrictMarowijne District
Area
 • Total1,117 km2 (431 sq mi)
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
 (2012)[1]
 • Total10,834
 • Density9.7/km2 (25/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-3 (AST)

HistoryEdit

Moengo started as a Maroon village on top of a hill overlooking the Cottica River. The settlement was later abandoned due to the difficulty of building houses on the bauxite rich ground.[3] In 1916, Alcoa founded the first bauxite mine in Suriname,[4] and this marks the beginning of the current town. Moengo was designed in 1919 to house 4,000 people.[5] It would became a major centre for the mining and storage of bauxite.[2]

Moengo was a segregated town. The American Quarter was built for the Americans and Dutch, the Surinamese Quarter for the Afro-Surinamese,[6] and Wonoredjo for the Javanese Surinamese.[7] Maroons were only hired for temporary work or trade in the town, and had to leave by sundown.[8] Until the 1960s, the racial regulations remained in force.[9] In 2012, the Maroons formed the biggest ethnic group with a significant minority of Javanese.[1]

 
Health centre at Moengo

The 1980s marked a violent period: the Surinamese Interior War had reached Moengo. Troops from the Jungle Commando captured the town in 1988, and held it for nine months before being recaptured by the National Army in June 1989.[10] A large portion of the population fled the town, the bauxite mine ceased its operations, and several buildings burned down.[11]

Moengo ceased to be mainly dependent on mining in late 20th century.[12] In June 2014, Alcoa announced that the bauxite mine was almost depleted, and wanted to cease operations in Suriname.[13] In 2017, the ownership of Suralco, the local subsidiary, was transferred to the Government of Suriname.[14]

TransportEdit

Moengo could originally only be reached via the river.[2] In 1926 lieutenant Weyne started to build a road to Moengotapoe which was extended to Paramaribo in 1929.[2] In 1964, the East-West Link opened.[2]

The Moengo Airstrip is located near the town, and was founded in 1955. Originally the airport was called Schiphol after Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.[5]

The Port of Moengo is a medium sized port with UN/LOCODE SRMOJ.[15] It used to be privately owned by Alcoa. In 2008, it was sold to Traymore Docks.[16] It has two jetties of which one is capable of handling oil tankers. Ocean-going ships have to use river tugboats.[17]

Sports and artsEdit

 
Moengo Festival 2017

The town is home to two Suriname first division football clubs: Inter Moengotapoe who play at Ronnie Brunswijkstadion, and Notch who play at Moengo Stadion.

In 2009, Kibii Foundation, chaired by the artist Marcel Pinas, established the Tembe Art Studio with the aim of inviting international artists to teach their skills.[18] These artists-in-residence have to donate a work of art to the Marowijne Art Park [nl] located in the nearby village of Ovia Olo.[18] As of 2011, Moengo is home to the Contemporary Art Museum Moengo which is the first museum for contemporary art in Suriname.[19] As of 2013, the Moengo Festival is organised, a three-day festival alternately showcasing music, theatre, dance, and the visual arts. In 2018, the festival attracted 20,000 people.[20]

VillagesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "2012 Census Resorts Suriname" (PDF). Spang Staging. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Distrikt Marowijne". Suriname.nu (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Naar Moengo". De West via Delpher.nl (in Dutch). 30 September 1919. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Overview of Alcoa on Suriname". Alcoa. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  5. ^ a b "Geschiedenis Moengo". Roosje Verschuur. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  6. ^ Koning 2011, p. 223.
  7. ^ Koning 2011, p. 219.
  8. ^ Koning 2011, p. 231.
  9. ^ Koning 2011, p. 239.
  10. ^ "Suriname's Leader and Rebel Chief Vow to Negotiate Uprising's End". The New York Times. 27 March 1991. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Distrikt Marowijne 2". Suriname.nu (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  12. ^ Koning 2011, p. 243.
  13. ^ "Bauxiet". The Government of Suriname (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Overname Alcoa-bezit in Suriname kan beginnen". Waterkant.net (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  15. ^ "MOENGO Port". Marine Traffic. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  16. ^ "Moengo port facilities up and running". 30 April 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  17. ^ "Introduction of Moengo Port (SRMOJ)". Sea Bay Cargo. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  18. ^ a b "Marowijne Art Park - Artists in Residence" (PDF). Mondriaan Foundation. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Abwesenheitsnotiz: Willem de Rooij Erinnerungen an Moengo". Monopol Magazin (in German). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  20. ^ "Stichting Kibii dreigt locatie te verliezen". De Ware Tijd (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  21. ^ "Tommy Asinga". Sports Reference. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  22. ^ "George Fredrik Alexander Barron". Suriname.nu (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  23. ^ "De Surinaamse droom van Gerrit Barron". Parbode (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Marinus Bee draagt voortaan MBA-titel". Dagblad Suriname (in Dutch). 7 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  25. ^ "Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië - Page 154 - Boschnegers" (PDF). Digital Library for Dutch Literature (in Dutch). 1916. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Humphrey Campbell". Conservatory of Amsterdam (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  27. ^ "Suri Legend Kenneth Kluivert". Surinaamse Voetbal Bond (in Dutch). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  28. ^ "'Mony Hond Bordo' wil de Surinaamse politiek in". Waterkant (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  29. ^ "Surinaamse Mony Hond (37) veroordeeld tot acht jaar gevangenisstraf". Dag Online (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  30. ^ "Le Mans. Jusqu'à 8 ans de prison pour trafic de cocaïne, le boss en fuite". Ouest France (in French). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  31. ^ "Surinaams icoon en pionier Humphrey Mijnals (88) overleden". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  32. ^ "Max Nijman". Discogs.com. Retrieved 14 May 2020.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 5°37′N 54°24′W / 5.617°N 54.400°W / 5.617; -54.400