Menyanthaceae is a family of aquatic and wetland plants in the order Asterales. There are approximately 60-70 species in six genera distributed worldwide. The simple or compound leaves arise alternately from a creeping rhizome. In the submersed aquatic genus Nymphoides, leaves are floating and support a lax, umbellate or racemose inflorescence. In other genera the inflorescence is erect and consists of one (e.g., Liparophyllum) to many flowers. The sympetalous, insect-pollinated flowers are five-parted and either yellow or white. The petals are ciliate or adorned with lateral wings. Fruit type is a capsule.

Menyanthes trifoliata
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Menyanthaceae

See text.

Species of Menyanthaceae are found worldwide. The genera Menyanthes and Nephrophyllidium grow only in the northern hemisphere, while Liparophyllum and Villarsia occur only in the southern hemisphere. Nymphoides species have a cosmopolitan distribution.

Menyanthaceae species are of economic importance as ornamental water garden plants, with Nymphoides being most commonly traded. The practice of growing non-native water plants has led to several species becoming naturalized or invasive.

Dimorphic heterostyly occurs in all genera but Liparophyllum. In addition, four species of Nymphoides are dioecious.[2]

Genera Edit

Plants of the World Online accepts the following genera:[3]

References Edit

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Tippery, Nicholas P.; Les, Donald H. (2011). "Phylogenetic Relationships and Morphological Evolution in Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae)". Systematic Botany. 36 (4): 1101–1113. doi:10.1600/036364411X605092. S2CID 83643283.
  3. ^ "Menyanthaceae Dumort". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-09-01.

External links Edit