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In botany, an umbel is an inflorescence that consists of a number of short flower stalks (called pedicels) which spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs. The word was coined in botanical usage in the 1590s, from Latin umbella "parasol, sunshade". The arrangement can vary from being flat-topped to almost spherical. Umbels can be simple or compound. The secondary umbels of compound umbels are known as umbellules or umbellets. A small umbel is called an umbellule. The arrangement of the inflorescence in umbels is referred to as umbellate, or occasionally subumbellate (almost umbellate).
- umbel etymology
- Menglan She, Fading Pu, Zehui Pan, Mark Watson, John F. M. Cannon, Ingrid Holmes-Smith, Eugene V. Kljuykov, Loy R. Phillippe & Michael G. Pimenov. "Apiaceae Lindley". Flora of China. 14. Retrieved 15 January 2019 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Beentje, H.; Williamson, J. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing.
- Walters, D.R.; Keil, D.J. (1975). Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
- Hinderer, Walter; Noé, Wolfgang; Seitz, Hanns Ulrich (1983). "Differentiation of metabolic pathways in the umbel of Daucus carota". Phytochemistry. 22 (11): 2417–2420. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(83)80131-9. ISSN 0031-9422.
- Toben, H.-M.; Rudoph, K (1996). "Pseudomonas syringae pv. coriandricola, Incitant of Bacterial Umbel Blight and Seed Decay of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in Germany". Journal of Phytopathology. 144 (4): 169–178. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1996.tb01510.x. ISSN 0931-1785.
- Peterson, L. E.; Clark, R. J.; Menary, R. C. (1993). "Umbel Initiation and Stem Elongation in Fennel(Foeniculum vulgare)Initiated by Photoperiod". Journal of Essential Oil Research. 5 (1): 37–43. doi:10.1080/10412905.1993.9698168. ISSN 1041-2905.
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