Membrane steroid receptor

Membrane steroid receptors (mSRs), also called extranuclear steroid receptors, are a class of cell surface receptors activated by endogenous steroids that mediate rapid, non-genomic signaling via modulation of intracellular signaling cascades.[1][2][3][4] mSRs are another means besides classical nuclear steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) for steroids to mediate their biological effects.[1][2][3][4] SHRs can produce slow genomic responses or rapid, non-genomic responses in the case of mSRs.[5]

List of membrane steroid receptorsEdit

Known groups of mSRs include:


  1. ^ a b Levin ER (2014). "Translating extranuclear steroid receptor signaling to clinical medicine". Horm Cancer. 5 (3): 140–5. doi:10.1007/s12672-014-0179-9. PMC 4040225. PMID 24752388.
  2. ^ a b Hammes SR, Levin ER (2011). "Minireview: Recent advances in extranuclear steroid receptor actions". Endocrinology. 152 (12): 4489–95. doi:10.1210/en.2011-1470. PMC 3858720. PMID 22028449.
  3. ^ a b Sen A, Prizant H, Hammes SR (2011). "Understanding extranuclear (nongenomic) androgen signaling: what a frog oocyte can tell us about human biology". Steroids. 76 (9): 822–8. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2011.02.016. PMC 4972037. PMID 21354434.
  4. ^ a b Watson, C. S. (1999). "Signaling Themes Shared Between Peptide and Steroid Hormones at the Plasma Membrane". Science Signaling. 1999 (12): pe1. doi:10.1126/stke.1999.12.pe1. ISSN 1945-0877. PMC 1317563. PMID 11865187.
  5. ^ W.Norman, A.; Mizwicki, M. T.; Norman, D. G. (January 2004). "Steroid-hormone rapid actions, membrane receptors and a conformational ensemble model". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3 (1): 27–41. doi:10.1038/nrd1283. PMID 14708019.