Medical uses of silver
The medical uses of silver include its use in wound dressings, creams, and as an antibiotic coating on medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials may be used to treat external infections. The limited evidence available shows that silver coatings on endotracheal breathing tubes may reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. There is tentative evidence that using silver-alloy indwelling catheters for short-term catheterizing will reduce the risk of catheter-acquired urinary tract infections.
|Medical uses of silver|
Silver generally has low toxicity, and minimal risk is expected when silver is used in approved medical applications. Alternative medicine products such as colloidal silver are not safe or effective.
Mechanism of actionEdit
Silver and most silver compounds have an oligodynamic effect and are toxic for bacteria, algae, and fungi in vitro. The antibacterial action of silver is dependent on the silver ion. The effectiveness of silver compounds as an antiseptic is based on the ability of the biologically active silver ion (Ag+
) to irreversibly damage key enzyme systems in the cell membranes of pathogens. The antibacterial action of silver has long been known to be enhanced by the presence of an electric field. Applying an electric current across silver electrodes enhances antibiotic action at the anode, likely due to the release of silver into the bacterial culture. The antibacterial action of electrodes coated with silver nanostructures is greatly improved in the presence of an electric field.
Silver, used as a topical antiseptic, is incorporated by bacteria it kills. Thus dead bacteria may be the source of silver that may kill additional bacteria.
Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a topical antibiotic used in partial thickness and full thickness burns to prevent infection. It was discovered in the 1960s, and was the standard topical antimicrobial for burn wounds for decades.
However systemic reviews in 2014, 2017 and 2018 concluded that more modern treatments, both with and without silver, show better results for wound healing and infection-prevention than silver sulfadiazine, and therefore SSD is no longer generally recommended.
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a number of topical preparations of silver sulfadiazine for treatment of second-degree and third-degree burns.
A 2018 Cochrane review found that silver-containing dressings may increase the probability of healing for venous leg ulcers. A 2017 meta-analysis of clinical studies over the period of 2000-2015 concluded that "the evidence base for silver in wound management is significantly better than perceived in the current scientific debate" and that, if applied selectively and for short periods of time, silver has antimicrobial effects, produces an improvement in quality of life and shows good cost-effectiveness. A 2014 data set from a recent meta-analysis concluded that the use of silver dressings improves healing time, and can lead to overall cost savings compared with treatment with non-silver dressings. It also found that patients who had been treated with silver dressings had a faster wound closure compared with patients who had been treated with non-silver dressings. A 2013 meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials found "statistical significant evidence" to support the use of Biatain Silver dressings in treating venous leg ulcers.
A number of wound dressings containing silver as an anti-bacterial have been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, silver-containing dressings may cause staining, and in some cases tingling sensations as well.
A 2015 systematic review concluded that the limited evidence available indicates that using silver-coated endotracheal breathing tubes reduces the risk of contracting ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), especially during the initial days of utilisation. A 2014 study concluded that using silver-coated endotracheal tubes will help to prevent VAP and that this may save on hospital costs. A 2012 systematic review of randomized controlled trials concluded that the limited evidence available indicates that using silver-coated endotracheal tubes will reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, microbiologic burden, and device-related adverse events among adult patients. Another 2012 review agreed that the use of silver-coated endotracheal tubes reduces the prevalence of VAP in intubated patients, but cautioned that this on its own is not sufficient to prevent infection. They also suggested that more research is needed to establish the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. Another 2012 study agreed that there is evidence that endotracheal tubes coated with silver may reduce the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and delay its onset, but concluded that no benefit was seen in the duration of intubation, the duration of stay in intensive care or the mortality rate. They also raised concerns surrounding the unblinded nature of some of the studies then available.
A 2014 systemic review concluded that using silver alloy-coated catheters showed no significant difference in incidences of symptomatic Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) versus using standard catheters, although silver-alloy catheters seemed to cause less discomfort to patients. These catheters are associated with greater cost than other catheters. A 2014 Multicenter Cohort Study found that using a silver-alloy hydrogel urinary catheter did reduce symptomatic Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) occurrences as defined by both NHSN and clinical criteria. A 2011 critical analysis of eight studies found a consistent pattern which supported using silver-alloy urinary catheters over uncoated catheters to reduce infections in adult patients, and concluded that using silver-alloy catheters would significantly improve patient care. A 2007 systemic review concluded that using silver-alloy indwelling catheters for short-term catheterizing will reduce the risk of catheter-acquired urinary tract infection, but called for further studies to evaluate the economic benefits of using the expensive silver alloy-catheters. Two systemic reviews in 2004 found that using silver-alloy catheters reduced asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria more than standard catheters, for patients who were catheterised for a short time. A 2000 randomized crossover study found that using the more expensive silver-coated catheter may result in cost savings by preventing nosocomial UTI infections, and another 2000 study found that using silver alloy catheters for short-term urinary catheterization reduces the incidence of symptomatic UTI and bacteremia compared with standard catheters, and may thus yield cost savings.
A 2017 study found that a combination of chlorhexidine & silver-sulfadiazine (CSS) used to coat central venous catheters (CVC) reduces the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections. However they also found that the efficacy of the CSS-CVC coating was progressively eroded by blood-flow, and that the antibacterial function was lost after 48 hours.
Conjugations with existing drugsEdit
Research in 2018 into the treatment of central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba castellanii, tested the effectiveness of existing drugs as well as the effectiveness of the same drugs when they were conjugated with silver nanoparticles. In vitro tests demonstrated more potent amoebicidal effects for the drugs when conjugated with silver nanoparticles as compared to the same drugs when used alone. They also found that conjugating the drugs with silver nanoparticles enhanced their anti-acanthamoebic activity.
Silver-halide imaging plates used with X-ray imaging were the standard before digital techniques arrived; these function essentially the same as other silver-halide photographic films, although for x-ray use the developing process is very simple and takes only a few minutes. Silver x-ray film remains popular for its accuracy, and cost effectiveness, particularly in developing countries, where digital X-ray technology is usually not available.
Silver compounds have been used in external preparations as antiseptics, including both silver nitrate and silver proteinate, which can be used in dilute solution as eyedrops to prevent conjunctivitis in newborn babies. Silver nitrate is also sometimes used in dermatology in solid stick form as a caustic ("lunar caustic") to treat certain skin conditions, such as corns and warts.
Silver nitrate is also used in certain laboratory procedures to stain cells. As it turns them permanently a dark-purple/black color, in doing so increasing individual cells' visibility under a microscope and allowing for differentiation between cells, or identification of irregularities. Silver is also used in bone prostheses, reconstructive orthopedic surgery, and cardiac devices. Silver diamine fluoride appears to be an effective intervention to reduce dental caries (tooth decay). Silver is also a component in dental amalgam.
Silver acetate has been used as a potential aid to help stop smoking; a review of the literature in 2012, however, found no effect of silver acetate on smoking cessation at a six-month endpoint and if there is an effect it would be small. Silver has also been used in cosmetics, intended to enhance antimicrobial effects and the preservation of ingredients.
In the 1840s, founder of gynecology J. Marion Sims employed silver wire, which he had a jeweler fashion, as a suture in gynecological surgery. This produced very favorable results when compared with its predecessors, silk and catgut.
Though toxicity of silver is low, the human body has no biological use for silver and when inhaled, ingested, injected, or applied topically, silver will accumulate irreversibly in the body, particularly in the skin, and chronic use combined with exposure to sunlight can result in a disfiguring condition known as argyria in which the skin becomes blue or blue-gray. Localized argyria can occur as a result of topical use of silver-containing creams and solutions, while the ingestion, inhalation, or injection can result in generalized argyria. Preliminary reports of treatment with laser therapy have been reported. These laser treatments are painful and general anesthesia is required. A similar laser treatment has been used to clear silver particles from the eye, a condition related to argyria called argyrosis. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) describes argyria as a "cosmetic problem".
One of the more publicized incidents of argyria came in 2008, when a man named Paul Karason, whose skin turned blue from using colloidal silver for over 10 years to treat dermatitis, appeared on NBC's "Today" show. Karason died in 2013 at the age of 62 after a heart attack.
Colloidal silver may interact with some prescription medications, reducing the absorption of some antibiotics and thyroxine, among others.
Some people are allergic to silver, and the use of treatments and medical devices containing silver is contraindicated for such people. Although medical devices containing silver are widely used in hospitals, no thorough testing and standardization of these products has yet been undertaken.
Electrolytically dissolved silver has been used as a water disinfecting agent, for example, the drinking water supplies of the Russian Mir orbital station and the International Space Station. Many modern hospitals filter hot water through copper-silver filters to defeat MRSA and legionella infections.:29 The World Health Organization (WHO) includes silver in a colloidal state produced by electrolysis of silver electrodes in water, and colloidal silver in water filters as two of a number of water disinfection methods specified to provide safe drinking water in developing countries. Along these lines, a ceramic filtration system coated with silver particles has been created by Ron Rivera of Potters for Peace and used in developing countries for water disinfection (in this application the silver inhibits microbial growth on the filter substrate, to prevent clogging, and does not directly disinfect the filtered water).
Alternative medicine Edit
|Risks||Argyria, decreased drug absorption,|
|Legality||Not to be sold for consumption or for disinfection in Sweden. Not to treat or prevent cancer (UK, Sweden, etc.) Illegal for medical use (US) |
Colloidal silver (a colloid consisting of silver particles suspended in liquid) and formulations containing silver salts were used by physicians in the early 20th century, but their use was largely discontinued in the 1940s following the development of safer and effective modern antibiotics. Since about 1990, there has been a resurgence of the promotion of colloidal silver as a dietary supplement, marketed with claims of it being an essential mineral supplement, or that it can prevent or treat numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV/AIDS, herpes, and tuberculosis. No medical evidence supports the effectiveness of colloidal silver for any of these claimed indications. Silver is not an essential mineral in humans; there is no dietary requirement for silver, and hence, no such thing as a silver "deficiency". There is no evidence that colloidal silver treats or prevents any medical condition, and it can cause serious and potentially irreversible side effects such as argyria.
In August 1999, the U.S. FDA banned colloidal silver sellers from claiming any therapeutic or preventive value for the product, although silver-containing products continue to be promoted as dietary supplements in the U.S. under the looser regulatory standards applied to supplements. The FDA has issued numerous Warning Letters to Internet sites that have continued to promote colloidal silver as an antibiotic or for other medical purposes. Despite the efforts of the FDA, silver products remain widely available on the market today. A review of websites promoting nasal sprays containing colloidal silver suggested that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the internet is misleading and inaccurate.
In 2002, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) found there were no legitimate medical uses for colloidal silver and no evidence to support its marketing claims. The U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) warns that marketing claims about colloidal silver are scientifically unsupported, that the silver content of marketed supplements varies widely, and that colloidal silver products can have serious side effects such as argyria. In 2009, the USFDA issued a "Consumer Advisory" warning about the potential adverse effects of colloidal silver, and said that "...there are no legally marketed prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs containing silver that are taken by mouth."Quackwatch states that colloidal silver dietary supplements have not been found safe or effective for the treatment of any condition. Consumer Reports lists colloidal silver as a "supplement to avoid", describing it as "likely unsafe". The Los Angeles Times stated that "colloidal silver as a cure-all is a fraud with a long history, with quacks claiming it could cure cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis, diabetes, and numerous other diseases."
It may be illegal to market as preventing or treating cancer, and in some jurisdictions illegal to sell colloidal silver for consumption. In 2015 an English man was prosecuted and found guilty under the Cancer Act 1939 for selling colloidal silver with claims it could treat cancer.
Fraudulent products marketed during the COVID-19 outbreakEdit
The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warning letters to firms including colloidal silver marketers for selling products with false and misleading claims to prevent, treat, mitigate, diagnose or cure coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). 
In 2020, televangelist Jim Bakker was sued by the Missouri Attorney General (AG) for marketing colloidal silver products and making false claims about their effectiveness against COVID-19. The Attorney General of New York sent a cease and desist order to Bakker and others about peddling the unproven products that was compared to selling “snake oil,” and the Food And Drug Administration also warned Bakker about his actions.
Controversial web show host, podcaster and conspiracy theorist Alex Jones was also warned by the New York Attorney General’s office to stop marketing his colloidal silver infused products (toothpaste, mouthwash, dietary supplements, etc.) because he made unproven claims of its ability to fend off COVID-19.
Hippocrates in his writings discussed the use of silver in wound care. At the beginning of the twentieth century surgeons routinely used silver sutures to reduce the risk of infection. In the early 20th century, physicians used silver-containing eyedrops to treat ophthalmic problems, for various infections, and sometimes internally for diseases such as tropical sprue, epilepsy, gonorrhea, and the common cold. During World War I, soldiers used silver leaf to treat infected wounds.
Prior to the introduction of modern antibiotics, colloidal silver was used as a germicide and disinfectant. With the development of modern antibiotics in the 1940s, the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent diminished. Silver sulfadiazine (SSD) is a compound containing silver and the antibiotic sodium sulfadiazine, which was developed in 1968.
The National Health Services in the UK spent about £25 million on silver-containing dressings in 2006. Silver-containing dressings represent about 14% of the total dressings used and about 25% of the overall wound dressing costs.
Concerns have been expressed about the potential environmental cost of manufactured silver nanomaterials in consumer applications being released into the environment, for example that they may pose a threat to benign soil organisms.
- Medici S, Peana M, Nurchi VM, Zoroddu MA (July 2019). "Medical Uses of Silver: History, Myths, and Scientific Evidence". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 62 (13): 5923–5943. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01439. PMID 30735392.
- Maillard JY, Hartemann P (November 2013). "Silver as an antimicrobial: facts and gaps in knowledge". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 39 (4): 373–83. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2012.713323. PMID 22928774. S2CID 27527124.
- Medici S, Peana M, Crisponi G, Nurchi VM, Lachowicz JI, Remelli M, Zoroddu MA (2016). "Silver coordination compounds: A new horizon in medicine". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 327–328: 349–359. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2016.05.015. hdl:11392/2350679.
- Atiyeh BS, Costagliola M, Hayek SN, Dibo SA (March 2007). "Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: review of the literature". Burns. 33 (2): 139–48. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2006.06.010. PMID 17137719.
- Qin Y (June 2005). "Silver-containing alginate fibres and dressings". International Wound Journal. 2 (2): 172–6. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4801.2005.00101.x. PMID 16722867. S2CID 37264763.
- Hermans MH (December 2006). "Silver-containing dressings and the need for evidence". The American Journal of Nursing. 106 (12): 60–8, quiz 68-9. doi:10.1097/00000446-200612000-00025. PMID 17133010.
- Bouadma L, Wolff M, Lucet JC (August 2012). "Ventilator-associated pneumonia and its prevention". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 25 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328355a835. PMID 22744316. S2CID 41051853.
- Lederer JW, Jarvis WR, Thomas L, Ritter J (2014). "Multicenter cohort study to assess the impact of a silver-alloy and hydrogel-coated urinary catheter on symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections". Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing. 41 (5): 473–80. doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000056. PMC 4165476. PMID 24922561.
- Beattie M (July 26 – August 1, 2011). "Can silver alloy catheters reduce infection rates?". Nursing Times. 107 (29): 19–20, 22. PMID 21941730.
- Schumm K, Lam TB (2008). "Types of urethral catheters for management of short-term voiding problems in hospitalized adults: a short version Cochrane review". Neurourology and Urodynamics. 27 (8): 738–46. doi:10.1002/nau.20645. PMID 18951451. S2CID 2985012.
- Lansdown AB (2006). "Silver in Health Care: Antimicrobial Effects and Safety in Use". Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin. Current Problems in Dermatology. 33. pp. 17–34. doi:10.1159/000093928. ISBN 978-3-8055-8121-9. PMID 16766878.
- "Hi Ho Silver". Science-Based Medicine. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
- "Over-the-Counter Drug Products Containing Colloidal Silver Ingredients or Silver Salts". GPO. August 17, 1999. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "The truth about colloidal silver". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
- Griffith RD, Simmons BJ, Yazdani Abyaneh MA, Bray FN, Falto-Aizpurua LA, Nouri K (June 2015). "Colloidal Silver: Dangerous and Readily Available". JAMA Dermatology. 151 (6): 667–8. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.120. PMID 25853658.
- "Colloidal Silver: Risk Without Benefit". www.quackwatch.org. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
- Spadaro JA, Berger TJ, Barranco SD, Chapin SE, Becker RO (November 1974). "Antibacterial effects of silver electrodes with weak direct current". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 6 (5): 637–42. doi:10.1128/AAC.6.5.637. PMC 444706. PMID 15825319.
- Akhavan O, Ghaderi E (February 2009). "Enhancement of antibacterial properties of Ag nanorods by electric field". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. 10 (1): 015003. Bibcode:2009STAdM..10a5003A. doi:10.1088/1468-6996/10/1/015003. PMC 5109610. PMID 27877266.
- Wakshlak RB, Pedahzur R, Avnir D (April 2015). "Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect". Scientific Reports. 5: 9555. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E9555W. doi:10.1038/srep09555. PMC 5386105. PMID 25906433.
- Marx J, Walls R, Hockberger R (2013). Rosen's Emergency Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 814. ISBN 978-1455749874. Archived from the original on 2016-09-13.
- Coran AG, Caldamone A, Adzick NS, Krummel TM, Laberge JM, Shamberger R (2012). Pediatric Surgery (7 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 369. ISBN 978-0323091619. Archived from the original on 2016-09-13.
- Adhya A, Bain J, Ray O, Hazra A, Adhikari S, Dutta G, et al. (December 2014). "Healing of burn wounds by topical treatment: A randomized controlled comparison between silver sulfadiazine and nano-crystalline silver". Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy. 6 (1): 29–34. doi:10.4103/0976-0105.145776. PMC 4268627. PMID 25538469.
- Gomes MT, Campos GR, Piccolo N, França CM, Guedes GH, Lopes F, et al. (January 2017). "Experimental burns: Comparison between silver sulfadiazine and photobiomodulation". Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. 63 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1590/1806-9282.63.01.29. PMID 28225874.
- Rashaan ZM, Krijnen P, Klamer RR, Schipper IB, Dekkers OM, Breederveld RS (2014). "Nonsilver treatment vs. silver sulfadiazine in treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Wound Repair and Regeneration. 22 (4): 473–82. doi:10.1111/wrr.12196. PMID 24899251. S2CID 19224002.
- Nherera LM, Trueman P, Roberts CD, Berg L (August 2017). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes associated with nanocrystalline silver use compared to alternative silver delivery systems in the management of superficial and deep partial thickness burns". Burns. 43 (5): 939–948. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2017.01.004. PMID 28161149.
- Nímia HH, Carvalho VF, Isaac C, Souza FÁ, Gemperli R, Paggiaro AO (March 2019). "Comparative study of Silver Sulfadiazine with other materials for healing and infection prevention in burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Burns. 45 (2): 282–292. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2018.05.014. hdl:11449/171102. PMID 29903603.
- Wasiak J, Cleland H, Campbell F, Spinks A (March 2013). "Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3 (3): CD002106. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002106.pub4. PMC 7065523. PMID 23543513.
It is impossible to draw firm and confident conclusions about the effectiveness of specific dressings, however silver sulphadiazine was consistently associated with poorer healing outcomes than biosynthetic, silicon-coated and silver dressings whilst hydrogel-treated burns had better healing outcomes than those treated with usual care.
- Heyneman A, Hoeksema H, Vandekerckhove D, Pirayesh A, Monstrey S (November 2016). "The role of silver sulphadiazine in the conservative treatment of partial thickness burn wounds: A systematic review". Burns. 42 (7): 1377–1386. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2016.03.029. hdl:1854/LU-8507323. PMID 27126813.
- World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
- "Drugs@FDA". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 2014-09-05. Retrieved 2010-07-10.
- Norman G, Westby MJ, Rithalia AD, Stubbs N, Soares MO, Dumville JC (June 2018). "Dressings and topical agents for treating venous leg ulcers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD012583. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012583.pub2. PMC 6513558. PMID 29906322.
- Dissemond J, Böttrich JG, Braunwarth H, Hilt J, Wilken P, Münter KC (May 2017). "Evidence for silver in wound care - meta-analysis of clinical studies from 2000-2015". Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology. 15 (5): 524–535. doi:10.1111/ddg.13233. PMID 28485879. S2CID 3752748.
- Jemec GB, Kerihuel JC, Ousey K, Lauemøller SL, Leaper DJ (2014). "Cost-effective use of silver dressings for the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic venous leg ulcers". PLOS ONE. 9 (6): e100582. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j0582J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100582. PMC 4063949. PMID 24945381.
- Leaper D, Münter C, Meaume S, Scalise A, Mompó NB, Jakobsen BP, Gottrup F (2013). "The use of biatain Ag in hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e67083. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...867083L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067083. PMC 3699549. PMID 23843984.
- Ethicon, Inc. 510(k) Summary for K022483 Feb. 3, 2003
- Argentum Medical LLC 510(k) Summary for K023609 Jan 17, 2003
- Euromed, Inc. 510(k) Summary for K050032 May 17, 2005
- Kinetic Concepts, Inc. 510(k) Summary for K053627 Feb. 6, 2006
- "Silver Antimicrobial Dressings in Wound Management: A Comparison of Antibacterial, Physical, and Chemical Characteristics". Wounds Research. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- Tokmaji G, Vermeulen H, Müller MC, Kwakman PH, Schultz MJ, Zaat SA (August 2015). Tokmaji G (ed.). "Silver-coated endotracheal tubes for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD009201. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009201. PMC 6517140. PMID 26266942.
- Shorr AF, Zilberberg MD, Kollef M (August 2009). "Cost-effectiveness analysis of a silver-coated endotracheal tube to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 30 (8): 759–63. doi:10.1086/599005. PMID 19538095. S2CID 14809364.
- Li X, Yuan Q, Wang L, Du L, Deng L (February 2012). "Silver-coated endotracheal tube versus non-coated endotracheal tube for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia among adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine. 5 (1): 25–30. doi:10.1111/j.1756-5391.2012.01165.x. PMID 23528117. S2CID 23720955.
- Kane T, Claman F (2012). "Silver tube coatings in pneumonia prevention". Nursing Times. 108 (36): 21–3. PMID 23035371.
- Bouadma L, Wolff M, Lucet JC (August 2012). "Ventilator-associated pneumonia and its prevention". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 25 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328355a835. PMID 22744316. S2CID 41051853.
- "FDA Clears Silver-Coated Breathing Tube For Marketing". 2007-11-08. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007.
- Lam TB, Omar MI, Fisher E, Gillies K, MacLennan S (September 2014). "Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short-term catheterisation in hospitalised adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD004013. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004013.pub4. PMID 25248140.
- Rosier PK (July 2004). "Review: silver alloy catheters are more effective than standard catheters for reducing bacteriuria in adults in hospital having short term catheterisation". Evidence-Based Nursing. 7 (3): 85. doi:10.1136/ebn.7.3.85. PMID 15252913. S2CID 35670327.
- Karchmer TB, Giannetta ET, Muto CA, Strain BA, Farr BM (November 2000). "A randomized crossover study of silver-coated urinary catheters in hospitalized patients". Archives of Internal Medicine. 160 (21): 3294–8. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.21.3294. PMID 11088092.
- Saint S, Veenstra DL, Sullivan SD, Chenoweth C, Fendrick AM (September 2000). "The potential clinical and economic benefits of silver alloy urinary catheters in preventing urinary tract infection". Archives of Internal Medicine. 160 (17): 2670–5. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.17.2670. PMID 10999983.
- Choi YJ, Lim JK, Park JJ, Huh H, Kim DJ, Gong CH, Yoon SZ (June 2017). "Chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine coating on central venous catheters is not sufficient for protection against catheter-related infection: Simulation-based laboratory research with clinical validation". The Journal of International Medical Research. 45 (3): 1042–1053. doi:10.1177/0300060517708944. PMC 5536400. PMID 28534703.
- Anwar A, Rajendran K, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Khan NA (January 2019). "Clinically Approved Drugs against CNS Diseases as Potential Therapeutic Agents To Target Brain-Eating Amoebae". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 10 (1): 658–666. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00484. PMID 30346711.
- Zennaro F, Oliveira Gomes JA, Casalino A, Lonardi M, Starc M, Paoletti P, et al. (2013). "Digital radiology to improve the quality of care in countries with limited resources: a feasibility study from Angola". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e73939. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...873939Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073939. PMC 3783475. PMID 24086301.
- "Colloidal Silver" (Last Updated September 2014). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. July 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Rosenblatt A, Stamford TC, Niederman R (February 2009). "Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet"". Journal of Dental Research. 88 (2): 116–25. doi:10.1177/0022034508329406. PMID 19278981. S2CID 30730306.
- Deery C (2009). "Silver lining for caries cloud?". Evidence-Based Dentistry. 10 (3): 68. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400661. PMID 19820733.
- Lancaster T, Stead LF (September 2012). "Silver acetate for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD000191. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000191.pub2. PMC 7043308. PMID 22972041.
- Kokura S, Handa O, Takagi T, Ishikawa T, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T (August 2010). "Silver nanoparticles as a safe preservative for use in cosmetics". Nanomedicine. 6 (4): 570–4. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2009.12.002. PMID 20060498.
- Alexander JW (June 2009). "History of the medical use of silver". Surgical Infections. 10 (3): 289–92. doi:10.1089/sur.2008.9941. PMID 19566416.
- Fung MC, Bowen DL (1996). "Silver products for medical indications: risk-benefit assessment". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 34 (1): 119–26. doi:10.3109/15563659609020246. PMID 8632503.
- Brandt D, Park B, Hoang M, Jacobe HT (August 2005). "Argyria secondary to ingestion of homemade silver solution". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 53 (2 Suppl 1): S105-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.09.026. PMID 16021155.
- Okan D, Woo K, Sibbald RG (June 2007). "So what if you are blue? Oral colloidal silver and argyria are out: safe dressings are in". Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 20 (6): 326–30. doi:10.1097/01.ASW.0000276415.91750.0f. PMID 17538258. S2CID 31383370.
- Rhee DY, Chang SE, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK (October 2008). "Treatment of argyria after colloidal silver ingestion using Q-switched 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser". Dermatologic Surgery. 34 (10): 1427–30. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34302.x. PMID 18657163.
- Jacobs R (2006). "Argyria: my life story". Clinics in Dermatology. 24 (1): 66–9, discussion 69. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2005.09.001. PMID 16427508.
- Geyer O, Rothkoff L, Lazar M (December 1989). "Clearing of corneal argyrosis by YAG laser". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 73 (12): 1009–10. doi:10.1136/bjo.73.12.1009. PMC 1041957. PMID 2611183.
- "ToxFAQs for Silver" (Page last updated: March 26, 2014). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- Moran, Lee. (2013-09-25) Man who turned blue after taking silver for skin condition dies. Nydailynews.com. Retrieved on 2016-11-26.
- Drake PL, Pribitkin E, Weber W (July 2009). "Colloidal Silver Products" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Cite journal requires
- Chopra I (April 2007). "The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern?". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 59 (4): 587–90. doi:10.1093/jac/dkm006. PMID 17307768.
- Subcommittee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines, Committee on Toxicology, National Research Council (2004). Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants. 1. National Academies Press. p. 324. doi:10.17226/10942. ISBN 978-0-309-09166-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Lansdown AB (27 May 2010). Silver in Healthcare: Its Antimicrobial Efficacy and Safety in Use. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-1-84973-006-8. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Solsona F, Mendez JP (2003). "Water Disinfection" (PDF). World Health Organization.
- Richmond C (2008-10-16). "Ron Rivera: Potter who developed a water filter that saved lives in the third world". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
- Corbett S (December 24, 2008). "Solution in a Pot". New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2009.
- Committee on Creation of Science-based Industries in Developing Countries, Development, Security, and Cooperation, Policy and Global Affairs, National Research Council of the National Academies, Nigerian Academy of Science. (2007). Mobilizing Science-Based Enterprises for Energy, Water, and Medicines in Nigeria. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-309-11118-8.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Kolloidalt silver" (Last updated Feb 17, 2016). Livsmedelsverket (Swedish Food Agency). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Vad gäller om jag vill sälja kolloidalt silver som biocidprodukt?". Kemi (Swedish Chemicals Agency). Archived from the original on 2016-10-10. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "Over-the-counter drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule" (PDF). Federal Register. 64 (158): 44653–8. August 1999. PMID 10558603.
- "Colloidal silver". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. May 16, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Wadhera A, Fung M (March 2005). "Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1): 12. PMID 15748553.
- Fung MC, Weintraub M, Bowen DL (October 1995). "Colloidal silver proteins marketed as health supplements". JAMA. 274 (15): 1196–7. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530150020017. PMID 7563503.
- Newman M, Kolecki P (October 2001). "Argyria in the ED". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 19 (6): 525–6. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.25773. PMID 11593479.
- "Colloidal Silver Not Approved". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007-02-12. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "FDA Warning Letter" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2001-03-13. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "FDA Warning Letter". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-11.
- Gaslin MT, Rubin C, Pribitkin EA (April 2008). "Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing". Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. 87 (4): 217–20. doi:10.1177/014556130808700414. PMID 18478796.
- "Regulation of colloidal silver and related products". Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. 2005-11-09. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- FDA Consumer Advisory (October 6, 2009). Dietary Supplements Containing Silver May Cause Permanent Discoloration of Skin and Mucous Membranes (Argyria).
- McSweegan E. "Lyme Disease: Questionable Diagnosis and Treatment". Quackwatch. Archived from the original (Revised on April 4, 2016) on February 9, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- "Twelve supplements you should avoid". Consumer Reports. September 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Colker D (May 2, 2009). "Scam 'cures' for swine flu face crackdown". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Man is fined after selling "cancer cure" which he made at home". Chelmsford Weekly News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Fraudulent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Products". US Food and Drug Administration. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
- Schwartz, Matthew S. (11 March 2020). "Missouri Sues Televangelist Jim Bakker For Selling Fake Coronavirus Cure". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Bote, Joshua (13 March 2020). "Conspiracy theorist Alex Jones ordered to stop peddling phony coronavirus cures by New York AG". USA Today. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Dai T, Huang YY, Sharma SK, Hashmi JT, Kurup DB, Hamblin MR (June 2010). "Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections". Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. 5 (2): 124–51. doi:10.2174/157489110791233522. PMC 2935806. PMID 20429870.
- Roe AL (January 1915). "Collosol Argentum and ITS Ophthalmic Uses". British Medical Journal. 1 (2820): 104. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2820.104. PMC 2301624. PMID 20767446.
- MacLeod CE (1912). "Electric Metallic Colloids and Their Therapeutical Applications". The Lancet. 179 (4614): 322–323. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)66545-0.
- Searle AB (1920). "Chapter IX: Colloidal Remedies and Their Uses". The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. Gerstein-University of Toronto : Toronto Collection: London Constable & Co.
- Cantlie J (1913). "Some recent observations on sprue". BMJ. 2 (2759): 1296–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2759.1282. PMC 2345624.
- Borsuk DE, Gallant M, Richard D, Williams HB (2007). "Silver-coated nylon dressings for pediatric burn victims". The Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery = Journal Canadien de Chirurgie Plastique. 15 (1): 29–31. doi:10.1177/229255030701500111. PMC 2686041. PMID 19554127.
- Searle AB (1920). "Chapter VIII: Germicides and Disinfectants". The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. Gerstein – University of Toronto : Toronto Collection: London Constable & Co.
- "Silver dressings--do they work?". Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. 48 (4): 38–42. April 2010. doi:10.1136/dtb.2010.02.0014. PMID 20392779. S2CID 206924334.
- Tolaymat TM, El Badawy AM, Genaidy A, Scheckel KG, Luxton TP, Suidan M (February 2010). "An evidence-based environmental perspective of manufactured silver nanoparticle in syntheses and applications: a systematic review and critical appraisal of peer-reviewed scientific papers". The Science of the Total Environment. 408 (5): 999–1006. Bibcode:2010ScTEn.408..999T. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.003. PMID 19945151.